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Lecture 4 Anatomy
Terms in this set (59)
What are organic compounds?
chemical compounds that contain carbon atoms that are covalently bonded to hydrogen and oxygen and are usually found in living organism.
What do organic compounds usually consist of?
What are inorganic compounds?
Smaller compounds that don't contain carbon
Examples of inorganic compounds
water, hydrochloric acid, salt
Examples of organic compounds
carbs, fats, proteins, nucleic acids
What are hydrocarbons?
organic molecules consisting of only carbon and hydrogen
What are isomers?
compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and properties
What are biomolecules?
What are monomers?
What are polymers?
multiple subunits of monomers.. Carbs, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
What is dehydration synthesis?
anabolic reaction in which two monomers are linked by a covalent bond and water molecules are formed
What is hydrolysis?
catabolic reaction in which the covalent bond linking the monomer is broken by the addition of water molecule atoms
Example of dehydration synthesis
Example of hydrolysis
Glucose and fructose
Dehydration Synthesis __ water
Hydrolysis ___ water
the type of carbohydrate that makes up the plant's cell wall which allows them to grow tall
What are monosaccharides?
(simple sugars) sweet tasting crystalline substances that are soluble in water.
Most common monosaccharide
Glucose (C6H12O6) (six carbon sugar)
What are disaccharides?
formed from 2 monosaccharides molecules combining together w the elements of a molecule of water- condensation.
Disaccharides can be broken down by what?
Hydrolysis (chemical reaction involving addition of water)
ex. sucrose, lactose, maltose
What is polymerization?
process of condensing many individual monosaccharide molecules to form a large polysaccharides molecules.
Polymerization of monosaccharide forms what?
Glycogen - in humans and animals
Starch and cellulose - in plants
What are the monomers of carbohydrates?
What are the monomers of nucleic acids?
What are the monomers of proteins?
What are the monomers of lipids?
glycerol and fatty acids
What are carbohydrates?
main source of the body to gain energy- our fuel.
What are lipids?
diverse group of substance that contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. fats, oil, waxes, phospholipids, steroids
What are phospholipids?
a lipid containing phosphate R in its molecule.
What is amphiphilic?
both hydrophilic and hydrophobic
hydrophobic- non polar
What are proteins compounds of?
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus.
Proteins make up about how much of our cells?
Examples of steroids
cholesterol, testosteron, and estrogen and progesterone
2 or more amino acids joined together
many amino acids
Lipids are __ in water
fats that are solid at room temperature, no double bonds between carbon.. higher melting point
liquid at room temperature, double bonds. lower melting point
Most lipids are ___ due to having what in them?
acidic; CHO carboxyl group
What are proteins?
Proteins are found in living things and are made up of amino acid chains.
What are nucleic acids?
large , complex organic molecules composed of nucleotides.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
transmits info from one generation to the next
Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
involved in protein synthesis. Transcription and translation
Physiological role of carbs in the body
They act as an energy source help control blood glucose and insulin metabolsim
Consists of unbranched helical chains of glucose units and branchred chains
Structural role of carbs
Cellulose is used to form plant cell walls which provides structural support
Role of proteins in the body
repair and build body's tissue, allow metabolic reactions to occur, how cells do things.
there are a lot of them in the body. for ex. enzymes help us digest
Structural role of protein
-structural support, protective transport aquaporins and hemoglobin, catalytic enzymes, regulatory hormone receptors
Structural role of lipids
Physiological role of lipids
structural components of biological membranes, provide energy reserves, regulate hormones,
Physiological role of Nucleic Acid
essential for replication of DNA and transcription of RNA. Provide cellular energy (ATP)
RNA copies recipe for specific protein (gene in DNA)
RNA exits nucleus to protein synthesis location; directs making of protein from recipe
Structural role of nucleic acid
store and express genetic information
sequence of amino acids, connected by peptide bonds through dehydration synthesis
amino acid chains arranged in hydrogen bonds.. Each bond is relatively weak. These structures are highly stable.
- interactions between R groups or R groups and peptide backbone
multiple polypeptide chains bonded together
How does the shape of a protein dictate function?
it determines whether the protein can interact with other molecules.
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