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Lecture 5 Anatomy
Terms in this set (54)
1838 Cell Theory (Schleiden and Schwann)
1. all living organisms are composed of cells
2. the cell is the most basic unit of life
3. all cells come from preexisting cells
What is the modern cell theory?
1. The cell contains DNA which is passed on from cell to cell during cell division
2. All cells are basically the same in chemical composition and metabolic activities (if you understand how one cell works you can infer how others work)
3. All basic chemical and physiological functions are carried out inside cell (movement, digestion, etc)
4. Cell activity depends on the activities of subcellular structures within cell (organelles, nucleus, plasma membrane)
What invention in 1633 led to the cell theory?
Microscope. Robert Hook observed them and called them cells
How did Anton van Leeuwenhoek contribute to the cell theory?
believing there were seeds or eggs way too small to see by the eye being planted in food and other things
What is morphology ?
shape and size of cell
What are the shape variations?
skin cells, nerve cells, egg cells
What is important about the cell size?
Cells need to be a certain size to be efficient.. if it gets too large, we can't get materials in the center as quickly as we need to.
What are the components of cells?
Cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus
What does the cell membrane do?
controls what goes in and out of the cell
plasma membrane (cell membrane)
lipid bilayers- covers a cell's surface and acts as a barrier between the inside and the outside of a cell
molecules that make up the bilayer of the plasma membrane and keep the membrane fluid.
What does Cholesterol do to the membrane?
Makes them a bit more rigid
What do carbohydrates do in membrane?
recognize patterns for cells and organelles
What kind of model is the cell membrane?
non-rigid, fluid mosaic model
What is the cytoplasm?
Material located between plasma membrane and the membrane surrounding the nucleus.
Intracellular fluid, contains dissolved nutrients, ions, soluble and insoluble proteins, and waste products
Structures suspended within the cytosol that perform specific function for the cell
network of fibers extending through the cytoplasm that provides. mechanical support and maintains the cell's shape.
highly regulated membrane barrier that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm
What is the nucleus?
center of atom that contains the cells DNA and controls the cell's activity
the space within the organism's cells
the space outside of the cell membrane but part of a multicellular organism.
What type of lipids are cell membranes made up of?
Carbohydrates form the Glycocalyx layer which allows the cells to do what?
Stick together and act as an identifier for the individual cells (able to recognize another cell in body)
98% of the membrane are what?
Lipids (75% of it is phospholipids.. 2% proteins)
What do proteins do in the cell membrane?
allow for transport of materials
transports a substance without having to expend energy. Relies on diffusion.
movement molecules from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration
the motion of particles suspended in a fluid (liquid or gas) that results from their collisions with fast moving molecules of the gas or liquid.
membrane transport protein changes shape and transports molecules through the bilayer.
What is osmosis?
the movement of water across a selectively semi permeable membrane from areas of low solute concentration (more water molecules) to areas of high solute concentration (less water molecules)
What are factors that affect the diffusion rate?
temperature, molecular mass, concentration gradient, membrane surface area, and membrane permeability
Smaller molecules diffuse ___
if there is a greater concentration gradient, there is a ___ diffusion
If a membrane is more permeable, the diffusion is __?
What is tonicity
the ability of a surrounding solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water
What is isotonic?
Having the same solute concentration as another solution.
when comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes. Water diffuses out of cell and the cell may shrink and die
when comparing two solutions, the solution with the lesser concentration of solutes. Water diffuses into cell and the cell may swell and burst
Energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane from an area of low concentration to high
Primary Active Transport
Active transport in which ATP is hydrolyzed, yielding the energy required to transport an ion or molecule against its concentration gradient.
Secondary active transport
Form of active transport which does not use ATP as an energy source; rather, transport is coupled to ion diffusion down a concentration gradient established by primary active transport.
Transport of large particles and macromolecules across plasma membranes
3 types of pumps in plasma membrane
uniport, symport, antiport
transport single substance through membrane in and out of cell in one direction
transport two or more substances through membrane in same direction into or out of cell
transport two or more substances in opposite directions through membrane
What do all animal cells have?
sodium potassium pump (example of active transport)
Thin layer of positive charges lines outside of membrane; thin layer of negative charges lines insideof membrane
material surrounded by cell membrane and brought into cell
mbrane vesicle fuses with plasma membrane, expelling contents outside of cell. Large molecules exit cell
molecules brought into cell by endocytosis. transported across cell to opposite side
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