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Carlisle Indian School of Pennsylvania

In the 1870's, policy makers recruited Indian children for special boarding that were meant to make the children more "civilized".
Located in Pennsyvania and became a model institution for this "civilization" policy

"An Indian's Looking-Glass for the White Man"

Written by William Apess, who let his readers know that their actions did not measure up to biblical standards, especially their treatment of Native Americans and African Americans


Ushually selfsih, oppertunistic, cunning pranksters seeking to defy authority and the natural origin of things. Often suffer for their behavior. Ushually a type of animal figure. Often have powers for good or evil. SOmetimes responsible for the origin of things in nature, though ushually unintentionally. Very often in the form of a coyote in Native American literature.

Culture Hero

Ushually a demi-god or has a god in his family. Has supernatural powers or strong support of a God. Ushually on a quest and has a task or challenge an ordinary mortal could bot carry out. Ushually has human desires and fratilities


a literary work that ridicules or criticizes a human vice through humor or derision


The attitude a writer takes toward the subject of a work , the characters in it, or the audience.

The Importance of Native American Oral Tradition

Prior to contact with the europeans native north american cultures realied primarily on the oral tradition to share stories and histories and to teach lessons

How was Native American oral tradition threatened by European colonization

after english colonies were established, english became America's national language. Formal English-language instruction became mandatory for Indians, and they were forced to suppress their native language.

Primary Functions of Myths

When studying myths, we find archetypes that uncover information about the nature of humanity and why we do certain things. Psychologists have studied mythologies to gather information about the human psyche.

Types of Myths

Creation or Origin Myths
Myths of death and destruction
Myths about culture heros

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