Ap Psych unit 1

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B.F Skinner-operant conditioning -Dismissed introspection and focused on observable behavior.John Watson and Rosalie RaynerConduced famous "Little Albert" experiments through classical= fear cane learned.Psychoanalytic psycologyEmphasized ways unconscious thought processes and emotional responses to childhood experiences affect later behavior.Sigmund FreudFather of psychoanalytic psychology.humanistic psychologyA historically significant perspective that emphasized human growth potential. -Led by Carl Rogers and Abraham MaslowCognitive PsychologyThe study of mental processes that occur when we perceive, learn, remember, think, communicate, and solve problems. -Led by Ivan Pavlov and Jean Piagetcognitive neuroscienceTies the science of mind and the science of the brain and focuses on the brain activity underlying mental activity.PsychologyScience of behavior and mental processes.Nature-nurture IssueLongstanding controversy over the contribution genes (nature) and experience (nurture) make to the development of psychological traits. -Bottom line= nurture works on what nature provides.natural selectionInherited traits that better enable an organism to survive and reproduce in a particular environment will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations. -Charles Darwinevolutionary psychologyFocuses on how humans are alike because of common biology and evolutionary history based on the idea of natural selection.behavior geneticsFocuses on differences related to differing genes and envirnments.cross-cultural psychologyFocuses on ways culture shapes behaviorGender PsychologyFocus on behavioral differences between males and females.positive psycologyThe scientific study of human flourishing with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities thrive.biopsychosocial approachIntergrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural viewpoints.Behavioral psycologyThe scientific study of observable behavior explained through principles of learning.biological psychologyThe scientific study of links between biological and psychological processes.psychodynamic psychologyA branch of psychology that looks at how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior in order to treat psychological disorders.social-cultural psychologyThe study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking.PsychometricsThe scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes and traits.Developmental psychologyBranch of psychology that studies physical and cognitive and social change through the lifespan.social psychologyThe scientific study of how me think about, influence, and relate to one another.Industrial/organizational psychologyThe application of psychological concepts in order to optimize human behavior in the workplace.clinical psychologyA branch of psychology that studies, assesses and treats people with psychological disorders.testing effectEnchanced memory after retrieving instead of rereading information.SQ3Rsurvey, question, read, rehearse, reviewhindsight bias-Tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that we could have predicted it.OverconfidencePeople tend to think they know more than they do. -Happens in academic and social behavior.Scientific Altitude-Curiosity: A passion to explore and understand the world without misleading or being mislead. -Skepticism: Questions about behavior and mental processes. -Humility: Awareness that mistakes are possible and willingness to be surprised.TheoryExplanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events.HypothesisTestable prediction, often implied by a theory.Operational definitionCarefully worded statement of the exact procedures (operations) used in a research study.Replicationrepeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants, in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.Case study-Examines one individual in depth. -Provides fruitful ideas -Cannot be used to generalizeNaturalistic Observations-Records behavior in natural environments -Describes but does not explain behavior -Can be revealing.Surveys-Examines many cases in less depth, asking people to report their behaviors and opinions. -Utilizes random sampling of population for best results.PopulationThe whole group you want to study.Random SampleEvery person in the group has each an chance of being chosen.Sampling BiasA flawed sampling process that produces an unrepresentative sample.VariableAnything that can vary and is feasible and ethical to measure.CorrelationA measure of how closely two factors vary together, or how well you can predict a change in one observing a change in the other= they are "co-related"Positive correlationIndicates a direct relationship, meaning that two things increase together or decrease together.Negative correlationIndicates an inverse relationship: As one thing increases, the other decreases.Correlation CoefficientProvides a statistical measure of how closely two things vary together and how well one predicts the otherScatterplotA graphed cluster of dots that represents the value of 2 variables.Illusory correlationRefers to the perception of a relationship between two variables where none exists or perceiving a stronger than actual relationship -May be fed by regression toward the mean.Regression towards the meanRefers to the tendency for extreme or unusual scores or events to fall back (regress) toward the mean. -for example: students who score much higher or lower on an exam than they usually do are likely, when rested, to return to their average or mean.ExperimentA research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on behaviors or mental process.Experimental GroupThe group that is exposed to the treatment or exposed to the treatment or exposed to the independent variable.Control GroupThe group that is not exposed to the treatment; serves as the comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.Random assignmentAssigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance.Double-blind procedureNeither those in the study nor those collecting the data know which group is receiving the treatment.placebo effectEffect involves results caused by expectations alone.ValidityThe extent to which an experiment measures what its suppose to measure.independent variablefactor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.cofounding variablea factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experimentdependent variableFactor that is measured; the variable that may change when the independent variable is manipulated.informed consentGiving potential participants enough information about a study to allow them to choose whether or not they want or not they want to participate.debreifingExplanation of a study to include its purpose and deceptions to its participants.Descriptive StatisticsNumerical data used to measure and describe characteristics of groups.Histograma bar graph depicting a frequency distributionCentral tendencyA single score that represents a set of scores.ModeMost frequently occurring score in a distribution.meanthe arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scoresMedianMiddle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it.skewed distributionIllustrates the three measures of central tendency- mode median and mean.RangeDifference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.measures of variationsimilarity or diversity (difference) in scores.normal curve (normal distribution)a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean (about 68 percent fall within one standard deviation of it) and fewer and fewer near the extremes.standard deviationComputed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.Inferentail statisticsnumerical data that allow one to generalize- to infer from sample data the probability of something being true of a populationstatistical significanceA statistical statement at how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.