38 terms

AP Psychology Chapter 12 & 13: Motivation & Emotion

James-Lange theory
experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli./We feel sorry because we cry, angry because we strike, afraid because we tremble/experience emotion you must first perceive your body's arousal.
Cannon-Bard theory
emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion; implies that your heart begins pounding as you experience fear;
Schachter's 2 factor theory
experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal./emotion grows from our awareness of our body's arousal, but also believed that emotions are physiologically similar. Thus, in his view, an emotional experience requires a conscious interpretation of the arousal.
Opponent-process theory
A theory that proposes that an emotional event elicits two competing processes: (1) an a-process (or primary process) directly elicited by the event, and (2) a b-process (or opponent process) that is elicited by the a-process and serves to counteract the a-process.
Cognitive-appraisal theory
unexplained arousal typically felt to be negative; ANS activity during diff. emotions is more distinct than suggested
Facial feedback effect
the process by which the facial muscles send messages to the brain about the basic emotion being expressed
Adaptation-level phenomenon
our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience
Relative deprivation
the belief that, no matter how much you are getting in terms of recognition, status, money, etc., it is less than you deserve
A need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
Instinct theory
behavior is motivated by instincts (fixed,innate responses that are species-specific)
Drive-reduction theory
the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry
Incentive theory
belief that our attraction to particular goals of objects motivates much of our behavior
Intrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective.
Extrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
Arousal theory
theory of motivation in which people are said to have a optimal level of tension that they seek to maintain by increasing or decreasing stimulaiton
Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active
the sugar the body needs to make energy
a hormone secreted by the beta cells of the Islets of Langerhans of the pancreas responsible for regulating the metabolism of glucose
Hunger/appetite hormones
Lateral hypothalamus
The two portions of the Hypothalamus that are located on either side of the Hypothalamus; when stimulated, this nerve cluster triggers feelings of hunger.
Ventromedial hypothalamus
part of the hypothalamus that can cause one to stop eating all together.
set point
the point at which one's body tries maintain weight
Basal metabolic rate
The metabolic rate of a resting fasting and non stressed endothermic
Anorexia Nervosa
an eating disorder in which a normal-weight person (usually an adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15% or more) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve .
Bulimia Nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie food, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise.
Sexual Response Cycle
the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson-excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.
Sex hormones
hormone produced in the adrenal cortex that targets the gonads, skin, muscles, and bones to stimulate reproductive organs and bring about sex characteristics
Hormones that stimulate the overies and testies
Follicle stimulating
Causes Ova to mature and Spermeotegenesis
Develops Corpus Luteum and Testosterone
Sexual orientation
a peron's predisposition to choose members of the same or opposite sex as romantic and sexual partners
Belonging motive
the human need to be liked and accepted by family, friends, and member of your community is called
a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resultig from optimal engagement of one's skills.
Achievement motivation
a desire for significant accomplishment: for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for attaining a high standard
hematic Apperception Test
a projective personality test that requires people to make up stories about the characters in ambiguous pcitures
Pain motive
Conflict theory
the view that human behavior is shaped by interpersonal conflict and that those who maintain social power will use it to further their own ends