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test 2 pulmonary vascular disease part 1
Terms in this set (38)
what is material that has traveled and obstructed pulmonary blood flow?
What are the types of pulmonary embolism?
c thrombo (blood)
what is the most common cause of a PE?
what can a PE cause?
1. pulmonary infarction (tissue death)
2. resultant atelectasis
a large clot straddles the bifurcation at the right and left pulmonary arteries and blocks blood flow to the left ventricle?
what do most PE originate as what?
slowing or stagnate blood flow? and what can it cause?
increased tendency of blood to clot? and what can it cause?
surgery or trauma to _____ can cause a DVT
what are the symptoms of a DVT
warm to touch
what can cause venous stasis and makes you a risk factor for DVT?
prolonged bed rest/sitting
what type of surgical procedures can make you a risk factor for a DVT?
certain OBGYN procedures
what hypercoagulation disorders can put you at risk for a DVT
What other risk factors can put a person for a DVT?
supplemental hormone therapy
What are the assessment findings of a DVT
What are the chest assesments of a PE
pleural friction rub
What are the vital signs of a patient with a pe
increased respiratory rate
increased heart rate
decreased blood pressure
pink blood tinged sputum
abnormal electrocardiographic patterns of a pe `
what are the radiologic findings of a chest radiograph?
hyper radiolucency distal to the embolus
dilation of the pulmonary arteries
right ventricular cardiomegaly (cor pomonale)
in mild to moderate PE what is found in blood gas?
acute respiratory alkalosis
in severe stage arterial blood gas of a person who has a PE is often to be known as?
acute respiratory acidosis
what checks for increased levels of fibrinogen (clotting component)
D dimer blood test
on a D dimer test what is the level that will tell you it is positive? you can have a false positive but not a false negative
when diagnosing a PE what is used to avoid exposure to radiation or the use of contrast?
what uses injected radioactive material to compare areas of perfusion with areas of ventilation?
what is a invasive imaging that requires catheter insertion into the right side of the heart and dye injection when other test have failed to identify a PE?
what is the gold standard for diagnosis of a PE ?
Computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CPTA)
what test uses intravenous contrast with CT that requires only a IV line for access and can be scanned in fewer breath holds
Computed Tomography pulmonary angiogram (CPTA)
what are example of anticoagulants that are used for a PE?
what prevents growth of existing clots and prevent new ones?
what dissolve clots?
what ar e examples of thrombolytics?
(these can cause bleeding)
what are general treatments of a PE?
1. oxygen if hypoxemia is present)
3. fluids and pressors for blood pressure regulation
what is a catheter that delivers lytic drugs and ultrasonic waves to dissolve clots?
EKOS (echoes) catheter
surgical removal of blood clot from the pulmonary circulation?
what are examples of prophylaxis?
1. IVC filter
2. compression socks
4. physical activity
5. blood thinning medications
what can be worn that helps move blood more efficiently reduces areas for blood to pool?
compression stockings TEDs
what is placed in the inferior vena cava that prevents clots from forming that is recommended in high risk patients?
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