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4.specialized labor

prehistoric knowledge

archaeologists(objects and buildings)

orgins of humanity

theories and answers:
(9th century C.E.)
Historians,Biologists, Zoologists, Paleontologists

Early Hominids

human like Australopithecines started 3 to 4 millions years ago. Oldest fossils found in Great Rift Valley (Africa) 1950s to 1960s lucy - greatest ever find

Homo Habilis

crude stone tools. 1 million years ago

Homo Erectus

stone ages, wood tools, clothing. Homo Erectus walked upright. 800,000 years ago

True Humans

Homo Sapiens-100,00 to 250,000 years ago. Advance forms of Homo Sapiens are Neanderthal then Cro-Magnon (Cro-Magnon considered Homo Sapiens Sapiens)
Homo Sapiens Sapiens migrated to Australia, Artic, Americas, Africa, Europe, Asia

The Stone Age AKA Paleolithic

Homo Habilis and Homo erectus existed.
used crude tools (rocks, clubs, caves).
Homo sapiens sapiens-advanced tools (knife,spear, axe, bow and arrow,fishing, huts, clothes)

Stone Age Society

extended families.clans-tribes

hunting and gathering

killed birds and animals(mammals like mamoths), fishing, nuts and berries. Tribes had chiefs, religious figures, buried dead. Oldest paintings: 32,000 yrs ago, Oldest musical instrument:30,000 yrs, gender division of labor


the domestication of animalsal
Neolithic-horses, buffalo, oxen, llamas, sheep, goats, cattle, and pigs.
Herding societies(nomadic)


10,000 yrs ago. 8,000 BCE-wheat, barley(mideast), spread to Balkans(6500 BCE), Nile Valley(6000 BCE),
Africa (5500 BCE) and Europe (5000 BCE)

civilized cities

communitites with government, religion, cities with labor, trade, skills, agriculture.
8000 BCE-jericho(Jordan) 5,000 BCE-Danpo (China)

Paleolithic societies

had camps caves tents huts hunting and gathering tools of stone wood and bone nomadic groupings of 25 to 40 people

Neolithic societies

had mud and stone houses farming and herding farming tools of stone weaving villages early cities


Current day Syria/ Lebanon. Economy (lumber, dyes), traders, sailors, 1st true alphabet (22 letters) Greek and Romans used alphabet. From 3000 BCE

the Hebrews

After 2000 BCE were first to believe in one god. Politically weak, enslaved by Egyptians. Conquered by Assyrians, taken over by Neo Babylonians

Assyrians/ Babylonians

Assyria first true empire (911 to 612 BCE) 500,000 troops, iron weapons, cavalry (horses). Took over most of Middle East including Mesopotamia and Egypt. Neo Babylonians took over from 626 to 539 BCE. Hanging Gardens, Nebuchadnezzar ruled.

the Hittites

Ancient Middle East. App[eared in Mesopotamia around 1700 BCE. First to use iron weapons

The Celts

First ethnic group to establish a widespread presence in Europe. Society based on close-knit tribal groups. Lived north of Danube River. They remain in France, Britain and Spain. 500 BCE began to migrate. No written language, oral tradition- myths, songs, folktales

Paleolithic (Old Stone Age)

10,000 to 2.5 million yrs.ago

Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age)

10,000 to 12,000 years ago

Neolithic (New stone age)

5,000 to 10,000 years ago

early hominids-Australopithicus

3-4 million years ago

early hominids- Homo Habilus

2-3 million years ago

early hominids-Homo Erectus

1.6-1.8 million years ago

True Humans-homo sapians

(neandertal) 100,000-250,000

True Humans-cro-magnon

60,000 years ago

True Humans-homo sapiens sapiens


True Humans-modern

40,000 years ago

True Humans-Bronze Age

5,000 years ago

River Valley Civilizations

from 3500 to 2000 BCE, river systems in the Middle East, India, and China gave birth to the world's first four civilizations


A Sumerian-Babylonian civilization on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Starting 8000 BCE. Large scale agricultue started 5000 BCE. _____________was begun Sumerians. Many cities, written language (cuneiform), Hammurabi's law code, skilled builders, temples- pyramids called ziggurats, pottery, metal working ( Bronze Age 3000 BCE), mathematics, traders.


On the Nile river. Agriculture began 5500 BCE. History begins 3100 BCE when King Medes united upper and lower ________. By 900 BCE _______ lost independence. Pharoahs, many cities, women-$(not too inferior)-children,Queens, Priestesses, Gods and Godessess, religion, life after death, Ra=Sun God, book of the dead, tombs(pyramids), mummification, written language (hieroglyphics), bronze tools and weapons, 365 day calender, polytheism

Indus Valley

Current day pakistan, India. Arose in 2600 BCE. Written language (Sanskrit) cannot be translated. Size of France, very large, urbanized, several hundred cities(Harappa and Mogenjo-Daro), centralized government. Metal tools, precious stones, trade. Downfall due to environment

Early China

Along the Yellow River. 8000 BCE- Neolithic cultures formed on Yellow River. Agriculture- wheat, millet, rice. 2000 BCE- Bronze working, Xia Dynasty. 1750 BCE- Shang dynasty, trade, silk, jade, written language (pictograms). Religion- fortune telling, ancestor worship, Confucianism, Daoism. Warring states period their tools and weapons were made of iron.

Early China Dynasties

Xia-2000 BCE
Han-206 BCE-220 CE


old kingdom-2575-2134 BCE
middle kingdom-2134-1340 BCE
new kingdom-1640-1070 CE

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