Terms in this set (108)
Tools of political analysis
CONCEPTS: help us classify objects by reorganizing that they have similar forms or similar properties
MODELS: include a network of relationships that highlight the meaning and significance of relevant empirical data
THEORIES: offer a systematic explanation of a body of empirical data
-An economic principle that assumes the individuals always make prudent and logical decisions that provide them with the greatest benefit or satisfaction and that are in their highest self-interest
BOUNDED RATIONALITY: does away with assumption of perfect information and utility maximization (assumes actors do best with info)
-Institutions: the shared concepts used by humans in repetitive situations organized by rules, norms, and strategies. (rules more formal-often externally enforced-, norms informal-often internally enforced-, strategies regularized plans about actions of others within incentive structure.
-often policy driven, prescriptively oriented.
-3 levels of rules: constitutional;, collective choice, operational.
Rational choice (classical version)
-makes assumptions of perfect information, narrowly defines interests
Rational choice (bounded rationality)
-assumes limited info, cognitive abilities, but still assumes self-maximizing behavior, albeit more broadly defined.
-e.g: we often satisfice, settle on the first acceptable outcome rather than continue to seek the optimum outcome.
Rational choice (institutionalism)
-belief that institutions do not shape preferences, but constrain decision sets.
-institutions provide information about incentives and likely action of others, therefore reducing uncertainty.
-institutions created by humans to solve collective action dilemma
-action taken together by a group of people whose goal is to enhance their status and achieve a common objective
IAD analysis (3 levels of rules in use)
1) operational: The operational level of analysis is where individuals collectively make decisions about day to day activities.
2): collective-choice: level of analysis focuses on decisions about the choice of rules that govern operational activities.
3) constitutional: level of analysis is concerned with the authorized actors for collective choice decisions and the rules governing those decisions.
-composed of action situation which have
1) the participants in the situation
2) the participants positions
3)the outcomes of participants decisions
4)the payoffs or costs and benefits associated with outcomes
5)the linkages between actions and outcomes
6)the participants control in the situation
-can be conceived of as an individual or as a group acting as a corporate actor
-the variables that are essential to evaluating actors in the action arena are:
1) their information processing capabilities
2) their preferences or values for different actions
3) their resources
4) the processes they use for choosing actions
Types of goods
Rivalrous: excludeable- private goods (ice cream, clothes) nonexcludebale-common pool (fish in ocean, water)
Non-rivalrous: excludable-toll/club goods (cable tv, private parks) nonexcludable: public goods (national defense, air, environment)
IAD Framework-key elements
-who are the actors?
-what are their preferences?
-what are the institutionsw (rules in place, both formal and infirmal)
-what sort of incentives do those rules provide?
-what sort of outcome are most likely given the configuration of the above?
-How would changing the rules change incentives and possibly outcomes?
-refers to the ability of governments to makes and enforce rules and to influence the behavior of individuals or groups.
-authority and legitimacy are key components of power
-power and authority are two terms that are frequently used interchangeably. however distinctly different
-authority flows not only from physical methods, but also flows from the norms that are recognized and embrace by society's members
-the presence of authority implies a sense of legitimacy.
-legitimacy is a condition in which power is exercise through established institutions according to accepted rules
-power that is not exercised in such a manner would be seen as not legitimate, undermining the authority of government.
-is defined as the legal and moral right of a governemtn to rule over a specific population and control a specific territory.
-the term order refers to an exisitn or desired arrangement of institutions based on certain principles, suchas liberty, equality, prosperity and security.
-often associated with the rule of law, and linked to values such as stability and obedience.
levels in which order exists
-community: an association of individuals who share a common identity
-government: is a human intervention by which societies are ruled and binding rules are made.
-also exists at the state level. the nation level, the nation state level, as well as in multinational states and stateless nations
-an independent political-administrative unit that successfully claims the allegiance of a given population. it also exercises a monopoly on the legitimate use of force, and controls the territory inhabited by its citizens or subjects.
-the concept used to describe this exercise of the use of force and control is known as sovereignty.
-the term nation denotes a specific people with a distinct and shared language, culture, or major ethnic group.
-nation and state are terms used interchangeably, but one must look at the context in which they are being used to determine differences.
-a state can also be a nation also known as (nation state)
state that contains two ro more major ethno-linguistuc groups in the geographic territories it controls.
-simply put is fairness
-it entails the distribution of rewards and burdens in society in accordance with what is deserved.
justice (what its concerned with)
-concerned with the distribution of resources such a s wealth, income, and educational opportunities.
-procedural justice: the following of rules (or equality of opportunity)
-social justice: concerned with outcome (or equality or outcome)
-theories tend to be based on the idea of consistency of treatment but can allow for different outcomes.
_the state exercises a monopoly of the legitimate use of force in enforcing its order within a given territorial area.
-sovereignty: the highest form of authority within a given territory.
-the government concentrates on ensuring law and order
-governments act in partnership with private industry in order to ensure rapid economic development.
social democratic state
-tries to secure goals such as equality of opportunity through state intervention in areas like education.
illiberal democracies (type of state)
-election held but they are usually not meaningful and that state does not make it a priority to guarantee rights and liberties (malaysia)
-elections are not free or fair, opposition parties are either banned or subjected to severe limitations (russia)
one party states
-elections only take place between candidates from the same party, the state and government are indistinguishable (china)
-the government tries to extinguish all sources of opposition and to control the whole of society
-in basic form, it asserts that the competition between groups is a good thing
-envisages the state as a neutral "umpire" between different groups
-presumes that some groups will "win" specific debates, but that across the whole field of policy-making there will be many different "winners".
-tends to assume that outcome will depend on the quality of argument, rather than on economic power.
pluralism (classical version)
-society is made up of numerous groups, all of which compete freely and fairly for attention of impartial governments. no one group holds a dominant position, different groups are influential in different policy ares.
-some groups are more advantaged than others, so competition is not entirely free or fair, governments are not neutral "umpires: they have interest of their own.
-tends to argue that competition between different groups detracts from quality of government
-envisages treat government is biased towards certain groups
-accepts that specific groups (those with the greatest economic power) will tend to prevail across the spectrum of policy making.
-is less concerned with the quality of argument than with he respective power of the competing groups
-accepts democratic competition, but sees this a s a battle between different elites.
-accept that powerful elites do exist, but that meaningful competition for political influence still exists.
-accept that certain groups are bound to prevail and that the task of government is to devise policies after consultation between these powerful groups. in such circumstances, democratic participation is at best an irrelevant distraction.
-can be seen as a variant of elitism
-according ot marxists, uner capitalism the only people who can infuence policy will be members of a property owning elite. while ordinary people are left (at best) with the illusion of power.
-the overall structure of a states political system and its political culture.
-a specific document that lays down the basic institutions of a state. procedures for changing them, and the basic rights and obligations of its citizens.
-can mean either a desire to do things in accordance with the political values of one's country, or an insistence that the existing constitution should always be obeyed.
-a list of basic rights =feature in most constitutions
-they feature in the american constitution and the 1948 the united nations adopted a universal declaration of human rights.
-the us bill of rights is concerned with freedoms from state interference (ex freedom of expression) - designed to promote negative liberty (freedom from external restraint).
-more recently constitutions have tended to include miore positive rights, like the right to certain welfare provision,- these are designed to promote positive liberty (provision of what is necessary for individuals to be able to fulfill potential)
the battle over ratification (federalist)
-supported ratification of the constitution
-wanted strong central government
-concerned about security and order
the battle over ratfication (antifederalists)
-opposed ratification of the constitution, wanted states to have power over the federal government, corruption best kept in check at the local level
positive liberty rights
-67% of the worlds country's have some form of right to health care as a part of their constitution
-universal declaration of human rights: -everyone has the right to s standard of living adequate for the health and well being of himself and of his family. right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, etc. motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance.
the limits of constitutionalism
-no single political system, however well designed can be a guarantee of good governance
-freedom is not a concept in which people can do anything they want pr be anything they want to be. freedom is about authority and the willingness of every single human being to cede to lawful authority a great deal of discretion about what you do.
social contract theory
-an attempt to explain the origins of and reasons for government.
thomas hobbes (17th century)
-life in nature is solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short
-need government to ensure security, given human nature, all powerful monarch
john locke (17th century)
-less pessimistic believer in natural rights government is to protect life, liberty, and property. (major inspiration for us founders.
jean-jacques rousseau (18th century)
-idealized mankind in state of nature, felt government could uphold general will positively binding people together.
john rawls (20th century)
-argues that society forms government in order to prevent harm - to allow for maximizing of freedom without causing harm to others.
-popularized by Jeremy Bentham
-asserts that government should be concerned with ensuring the greatest happiness of the greatest number
-roots of modern new right minimal state ideas
-gives rise to concern about the protection of the rights of the minority
-often assumes a neutral state, and envisages a society of free, competitive individuals for whom social and cultural ties are relatively unimportant.
-emphasizes the social and cultural contexts in which individual \live. on this view it is difficult to envisage that state as being neutral.
-believe that an organized state can only be a corrupting influence on society
-people associated anarchism with violence but it is based on an optimistic view of human nature in which people can live peaceably and settle their difference without any need for outside intervention.
key distinction: power and authority
-power: exercise without consent generally requires coercion
-authority: usually equated with consent
Max weber-traditional authority
-derived from long-established customs and values
-associated with monarchies
Weber- charismatic authority
-derived form the person attributes of the ruler
-associated with dictatorships
Weber- legal-rational authority
-derived from the status of an office within a constitutional framework
-associated with democratic rule
3 dimensions of power- pluralist
-A has power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something that B would not otherwise do (Robert Dahl)
-argue that although certain groups might exercise power in specific areas, no single group will dominate across the range of policy making
-also argue that the exercise of power is empirically observable
3 dimensions of power- modified pluralist
- Power is also exercise when A devotes his energies to creating or reinforcing social and political values and institutional practices that limit the scope of the political process to public consideration of only those issues which are comparatively innocuous to A (Bachrach and Baratz)
-suggests that some groups are powerful enough to keep damaging issues off the political agenda.
-therefore we have to consider non decision making as well.
3 dimension of power- third dimension
-A may exercise power over B by getting him to do what he does not want to do, but he also exercises power over him by influencing, shaping or determining his very wants.
-argues that powerful groups can prevent their potential opponents from understanding where their true interest lie.
-is an essentially contestes concept. it is a strongly positive term so numberous regimes of differing forms claim to be democratic. it is difficult to adjudicate between these claims.
- people represent themselves
-people choose others to represent them
-some states allow people to vote but restrict their choices in various ways
-the key point in discussion about democracy is whether of not the subsystem allows genuine accountability of the government to the poeple
pluralist theories of democracy
-argue that liberal democracies offer free competition between as many groups as are prepared to organize and present themselves for election.
-free competition is a good thing
elitist theories of democracy
-argue that competition for power is always restricted, and, that even in liberal democracies the realistic choice for voters is restricted to a small number of elitist organizations.
-free competition would be a good thing but its impossible
-variant of elitist theory. argue that government decision will not be effective unless they enjoy the full support of key economic groups. such groups should therefor be closely involved in decision making.
economic theory of democracy
Anthony downs developed a theory in which voters behave like self-interested economic actors.
-down's theory is an example of rational choice
-weaknesses= presents an over simplified view of human behavior, that many individuals do not vote according to their self-interest.
-argues that political decision should be informed by public opinion, arising from intensive discussion of key issues between elections.
-while previous theories have focused on nation state or smaller communities. some theorists have argues that international institutions should be held accountable to much wider communities even global.
problem of majority rule
-can leave minorities unprotected
-best remedy is codified constitution which entrenches individual rights
-anarchists believe that the problem can never be resolved under representative democracy. their solution depends upon a very optimistic view of human nature, which would envisage a functional society with no need for governement
problem of apathy
-democracies can suffer from capturing of government by groups that can advance their own agenda to possible detriment of society as a whole
-made more of an issue by apathy
-citizens who display little interset and involvemen t who either intentionally or not give up their voice and input int the system.
focus on equal access to participation
focus on equitable means of distribution
Dahl, Schmitter, and Karl's requirements
-freedom to form and join organizations
-freedom of expression
-right to vote and to run for office
-right of political leaders ti compete for support and votes
-free and fair elections
-control over government decisions vested in elected officials.
-officials could not be subjected to over riding by unelected official s (military, servants, etc)
-polity must be self-governing , not operating within constraints of larger system
-some version of multiparty elections and effective legal framework ensuring civil liberties
-officials should not be subject to over-riding byt unelected officials
-equal effective input, no group with superior power to make decisions without formal accountability
what democracy is not
- a panacea
-a path to the end of history
-not necessarily more stable, consensual, or governable than autocracies.
-the capacity of democracies to modify their rules and institutions con-sensually in response to changing circumstances.
-consent and participation
-facilitates non-violent conflict resolution
-freedom and liberty are interchangeable terms
-freedom like democracy is an essentially contested concept.
-a reasonable starting point is to define freedom as the absence of constraints.
constraints on freedom
physical coercion: most obvious
physical incapacity: is a constraint but is only related to freedom in our sense if for example a disabled person is denied access to resources which would improve her quality of life.
-the idea that only the moral or the rational can truly be free was proposed by Jeans Jacques Rousseau
-others argue that we are not free if we are subjected to powerful psychological influences.
-we can be said to be unfree if we lack sufficient economic resources
john stuart mill
-one of the most influential advocated of the idea of freedom
-Mill's "on liberty" argues for the maximum possible freedom, on the grounds of human advancement.
-freedom of expression will lead to new intellectual discoveries and will actually reinforce faith in long established ideas provided that they can stand up to rational discussion.
-advanced a principle to inform decision about the proper scope of liberty. this "harm principle" distinguishes between actions which affect others and those which only affect yourself.
-other regarding actions can be prohibited by law, if they cause harm,self regarding actions by contrast should not be constrained
-those who advocate negative liberty argue that people should be as free as possible from external influences
-accept external influences which help individual fulfillment. (state education funded by taxation)
-concerned with the distribution of resources, such as wealth, income, and educational opportunities
-the following of rules (or equality of opportunity)
-concerned with outcomes (equality of outcomes)
-most influential political thinkers of recent times.
-his book "a theory of justice" argues that people who ere unaware of their position in society would agree that: social and economic inequalities should only be allowed to the extent that they benefit society as a whole, all offices should be open to free and fair competition, also argued that people should have an equal right to freedom, provided that this was compatible with the freedom of others. this drew attention to possible conflicts between justice and freedom.
criticisms of rawls
-the imagined scenario from which his principles of justice arise are deeply implausible.
-although he allows that individuals in his scenario will be self interested, he overlooks the possibility that they will be risk takers who will be happy to accept that society should be unjust because they assume that they will b rich rather than poor.
-main critic-robert nozick- argues that despite rawl's apparent attachment to liberty, he allows far to much potential scope for state intervention through taxation to redistribute wealth from the rich to the poor.
cosmopolitan approach to justice
-looks beyond the conflnes of a single state and attacks inequalities on a global scale.
communitarians on justice
-criticize liberal ideas which assume that justice can mean the same thing in different cultural contexts. on this view, liberal democracies should not try to impose their ideas on other societies, but merely try to live in peaceful coexistence with other.
green theories of justice
-extend the principle of justice from human beings to animals. they also introduce the idea of justice between generations, arguing that people have a duty to consider the rights of those yet unborn, of those who will inherit the planet as we leave it.
-set of beliefs and ideas regarding the role of government in a society
-act as a kind of filter that adherents use to interpret events, explain human behavior, and justify political action.
-range from all embracing theories of humanity and social organization to loose collections of ideas that change over time.
-set of ideas designed to provide a description of the existing political order, a vision of what the ideal political order should look like.
-DESCRIBES THE CURRENT SITUATION AND PRESCRIBES AN IDEAL SITUATION
-most successful of all traditional ideologies
-based on the notion of the rational individual
-emphasizes individualism, equality and civil rights above other values
-argues that the state should nto interfere in social or economic activities beyond the basic minimum.
-argues that the state should intervene to ensure that all individuals enjoy at least some degree of freedom.
critics of liberalism
-classical liberalism if taken to extremes would allow people to starve.
-new liberalism if taken to extreme can justify an extension of state interference to such a degree that basic liberties are endangered.
-prioritizes the individual over society as a whole, and because it rests on over optimistic assumptions about individual rationality.
fascism (ideologies of the right)
-totalitarian political system that is headed by a popular charismatic leader.
-a system in which a single political party and carefully controlled violence form the basis of complete social/political control.
-differs from communism in that the economic structure, although controlled by that state is privately owned
-ultra nationalistic image
-utilizes scapegoats to blame society's ills and shortcomings
leftest ideologies (collectivism)
-holds that the public good is best serve by common ownership and administration of the political community's means of production and distribution.
-collectivist principle has been expressed in the form of socialism
-an ideology that favors collective and government ownership over individual or private ownership.
-can be associated with the industrial revolution.
-liberals welcomed industrial capitalism, socialists regarded its effects as dehumanizing.
-liberals think individuals are naturally competitive, socialist believe that human fulfillment can only be attained in a cooperative context.
key socialist ideas
-individual character is shaped by circumstances
-ideally there is no economic inequalities, and goods should be distributed on the basis of need.
-cooperation not competition
-too optimistic about human nature
-rejects individualism, private ownership, and private profits
-socialism advocates economic collectivism, governmental/societal ownership of the means pf production and distribution of goods.
-socialistic ideology that embraces collectivist ends but si committed to democratic means.
-believe that collectivism can occur through reform rather than revolution
-political sovereignty can still rest with people
-most socialist political parties within states advocate governmental control over key parts of the economy, such as transportation, communications, public utilities, and banking.
-extreme left wing ideology
-political and economic system that is based on radical equality
-it is somewhat related to socialism, but differ in that it will be brought about by class struggle and ensuing revolution.
-also called Marxism
-true anesthetists to capitalism
-political dissent is seen as a distraction to governmental responsibility, therefor requiring the squashing of such dissent.
-governmental ownership is of central importance.