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102 terms

LE Massage Therapy Chapter 3

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Vitreous Body
a transparent jelly-like material behind the eye
Retina
Innermost coast (tunic) of the eyeball, includes the receptors for vision
Cones
Vision receptors sensitive to COLOR
Rods
Vision receptors that function in dim light
Aqueous Humor
watery liquid secreted at the ciliary body that fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye and provides nourishment for the cornea, iris, and lens (humor = fluid)
Iris
colored part of the eye that regulates the size of the pupil
Sclera
Opaque, outermost layer of the eyeball, made of connective tissue
Eustachian tube
Passageway connecting middle ear cavity with the throat
Tympanic Membrane
Eardrum
Pinna
Name for projecting part of ear
Lacrimal Gland
Produces tears
Ossicles
3 small bones in the middle ear
Proprioceptors
receptors that transmit information on the position of body parts
Ceruminous Glands
Wax glands in external auditory canal
Color Blindness
disorder of a person with a lack of cones in the retina
Lacrimation
secretion of tears
Hormones produced by the anterior pituitary
GH - growth hormone
TSH - thyroid stimulation hormone
ACTH - adrenocorticotropic hormone
PRL - prolactin
FSH -follicle stimulating hormone
LH - luteinizing hormone
Hormones produced by islets of langerhans
Insulin and glucagon
Hormones released by adrenal cortex during stress that reduces inflammation
Cortisol
Endocrine gland composed of a cortex and medulla
Adrenal
Gland active in immunity
Thymus
Hormones from the posterior pituitary that causes contractions
Oxytocin
Largest endocrine gland, located in neck
Thyroid
Hormone produced by pineal gland
Melatonin
Endocrine gland divided into an anterior and posterior lobe
Pituitary
Hormone that lowers blood sugar
Insulin
Epinephrine
Adrenaline
Glands of the endocrine system
Pineal
Pituitary
Thyroid
Parathyroids
Thymus
Adrenals
Pancreatic islets
Gonads - Ovaries and Testes
Function of the endocrine system
regulates secretion of hormones
Secretes HGH
Anterior Pituitary
Secretes Oxytocin
Posterior Pituitary
Secretes Glucagon
Pancreas - Islets of Langerhans
Red Blood Cells
Erythocytes
White Blood Cells
Leukocytes
Important gas transported by the blood from lungs to all parts of the body
Oxygen
Gaseous waste product carried by blood to lungs from t he body
Carbon Dioxide
Platelet
thrombocytes
Substances in RBC's that contain iron
HEMOGLOBIN
Transfusion
administration of blood or blood components from one person to another
Rh Factor
Blood antigen involved in hemolytic disease of the newborn
Hemorrage
profuse abnormal bleeding
HEMOGLOBIN
pigment in RBC's that carries oxygen
Right side of heart and lungs
Involved in pulmonary circulation
Left side of the heart and lungs
Involved in systemic circulations
Mitral Valve - Bicuspid
THE LEFT AV VALVE
BRADYCARDIA
Heart rate of less than 60bpm
Stroke Volume
Amount of blood ejected from a ventricle with each beat
Pulmonary Valve - Semilunar
Valve that prevents blood on its way to the lungs from returning to the right ventricle
Murmur
Sound that may result from a heart defect, from abnormal closing of the valve
Hearts Conduction System
Bundle of HIS, Purkinje fibers, AV node
Tachycardia
Heart rate greater than 100 bpm
SA node
Pacemaker
Time for average cardiac cycle
0.8 seconds
Diastole
Resting period that follows the contraction phase of the cardiac cycle
Systole
Term for blood pressure reading taken during ventricular contraction
Myocardium
heart muscle thickest layer in the heart wall
Right atrium and ventricle
the oxygen content of each chamber of the heart
Main function of cardiovascular system
circulation
Artery
vessels that carry blood away from the heart, a large, muscular blood vessel that carries oxygen-rich blood away from the heart
Veins
blood vessels that carry waste containing blood from the tissues back to the heart
Renal Artery
Large paired branches of the abdominal aorta supplying blood to kidneys
Superior Mesenteric Artery
Largest branch of abdominal aorta, supplies most of the small intestines and first half of large intestines
Coronary Sinus
Vein that carries blood from the coronary circulation back in to the right atrium
Hepatic Artery
Vessel that carries oxygenated blood to the liver
Valves
Structure that prevents blood from moving backward in the veins
Aorta
largest artery in the body
Carotid
Vessels that supply the head and neck on each side
Endothelium
Tissue that comprises the innermost layer of blood vessel
Brachial
Main vessel supplying the arm, a continuation of the axillary artery
Axillary
Main vessel supplying blood to the armpits
Internal Iliac artery
vessels that supply blood to bladder, rectum, genitalia, uterus and vagina
Popliteal
Vessel supplying blood to the knee
AZYGOS
empties into the superior vena cava - VESSEL draining lateral and posterior walls of the abdomen, chest, esphagus, and bronchial tree
Arteries
Vessels that carry blood from the heart to tissues
Smooth Muscle
middle layer of atrial wall that is composed of elastic connective tissue
Veins
Vessels carrying blood of tissues and back to heart
Femoral
Artery of the thigh
Inferior Vena Cava
large vein draining blood from parts of the body below the diaphram
Subdivisions of the aorta
Ascending Aorta
Aortic Arch
Thoracic Aorta
Abdominal Aorta
Paired Arteries
PHRENIC artery
SUPRARENAL artery
RENAL artery
OVARIAN/TESTICULAR arteries
LUMBAR arteries
Unpaired Arteries
CELIAC TRUNK artery
SUPERIOR MESENTERIC ARTERY
INFERIOR MESENTERIC ARTERY
Thymosin
a hormone produced by the thymus gland
Thymus
an organ that shrinks in size after puberty
Antibodies
provide specific defenses against infections
Tonsils
Lymphatic organ found in throat
Lymph node
organs found through the body that contain WBC to destroy viruses and bacteria
Functions of the Lymph system
Fluid Balance
Protection from infection
Absorption of fats
Right Lymphatic Duct
duct draining lymph from right arm, right side of the head, right half of thoracic cavity into right subclavian
Lacteals
specialized lymphatic capillaries in the small intestines
Hormones aiding in maturation of the T Cells needed for immunity
Thymosin
Peyer Patches
name for internal tonsils, found in small intestine to combat ingested pathogens
Lymph
Tissue Fluid
Vermiform
appendix an organ human can live without
Spleen
largest lymphatic organ in the spleen
Cisterna chyli
temporary storage area formed by an enlargement of the first part of the thoracic duct
Antigen
any foreign substance introduced into the body that provokes an immune response
What causes lymph movement?
Valves in vessels
Contraction of muscles
Skeletal muscle contractions
Breathing
Components of the lymphatic system
Lymph vessel
Lymph
Lymphoid organ
Lymphoid Tissue
Location of lymph glands from most inferior to superior
Groin
Illiac
Lumbar Nodes
Cisterna Chyli
Spleen
Thymus
Parotid
Lymph fliud is derived
Plasma
Immune System
is closely associated the Lymphatic system
What system is the Pancreas and Thymus?
Endocrine