Bilogy1408 Final by kate
Terms in this set (85)
List the levels of organization within biology from smallest to largest.
Atom, Molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere.
an educated guess based on background research.
What is the purpose of the control in an experiment?
The control is the group in which the independent variable is either eliminated or set at a standard value. The results of the control group are compared to the results of the experimental treatment to determine if manipulating the independent variable had a measurable effect on the dependent variable.
Discuss the pHs of acids & bases?
Include in which direction the acids & bases get stronger. Ph is on a scale of 0 to 14 where 0 is the PH of very strong acids and 14 is the PH of very strong bases. 7 Is neutral which means it is not acidic nor basic.
What is meant by neutralization of acids and bases?
When acids and bases mix they undergo neutralization to form a ph of 7 which is considered a neutral solution
Organic compounds must contain what atom?
Explain why water and oil do not mix.
Oil and water don't mix because oil is made up of non-polar molecules while water molecules are polar.
List the polymers of each organic molecule group?
Carbohydrates: Polymer such as starch
Lipids: Polymer such as diglycerides, and triglycerides or even Phospholipidsproteins
Proteins: Long polymer such as egg protein
Nucleic acids: Polymers such as DNA and RNA
How do plants and animals store glucose?
The primary way that animals store glucose is in a compound known as glycogen. Starch is the principal polysaccharide used by plants to store glucose for later use as energy.
What type of lipid is the plasma membrane made out of?
Describe an unsaturated fat
A fat that is liquid at room temperature and comes from a plant, such as olive, peanut, corn, cottonseed, sunflower, safflower, or soybean oil.
List the differences between plant and animal cells.
animal cells do not have a cell wall or chloroplasts but plant cells do. Animal cells are round and irregular in shape while plant cells have fixed, rectangular shapes.
Whats the difference between a prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell?
The cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells is filled with a large, complex collection of organelles, many of them enclosed in their own membranes; the prokaryotic cell contains no membrane-bound organelles which are independent of the plasma membrane.
What is a plant cell wall made of?
What is the function of the nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplast?
Nucleus is the control of the center and largest organelle of the cell. Contains the genetic material. Mitochondria houses the energy for the cell and Chloroplasts are the site for photosynthesis.
What is the function of the flagella? What does it look like?
The Flagella is a tall like structure used for locomotion and may also be used as a sensory organ for the cell. May be found on cells of certain animals, protists, and plants.
)What type of energy does glucose store? What is the energy of movement?
if the body does not need glucose for energy, it stores glucose in the liver and the skeletal muscles in a form called glycogen. If glycogen stores are full, glucose is stored as fat. Kinetic energy is the energy of movement.
Discuss enzyme function including shape, specificity, recycled, active site, and substrate.
. Enzymes are folded in GLOBULAR SHAPES. The enzyme's shape enables it to receive only one type of molecule; that molecule that will fit into it's shape. The place where the substance fits into the enzyme is called the active site and the substance that fits into the active site is called the substrate.
What is denaturing? What factors are responsible for denaturing enzymes?
Denaturation occurs because the bonding interactions responsible for the secondary structure (hydrogen bonds to amides) and tertiary structure are disrupted. In tertiary structure there are four types of bonding interactions between "side chains" including: hydrogen bonding, salt bridges, disulfide bonds, and non-polar hydrophobic interactions. which may be disrupted. Therefore, a variety of reagents and conditions can cause denaturation. The most common observation in the denaturation process is the precipitation or coagulation of the protein.
Where does our energy come from?
Energy comes from different sources such as oil, coal, wind, the sun, water, natural gas and even manure.
What molecule made via anaerobic respiration contributes to muscle soreness?
What process do yeasts undergo to make alcohol. Is oxygen needed for this process?
alcoholic fermentation, also referred to as ethanol fermentation, is a biological process in which sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose are converted into cellular energy and thereby produce ethanol and carbon dioxide as metabolic waste products. Because yeasts perform this conversion in the absence of oxygen, alcoholic fermentation is considered an anaerobic process.
Write out the general equation for the cellular respiration of glucose.
C6H12O6+6O2-à 6H20+6CO2+38ATP also looked at as Glucose plus oxygen-à water plus carbon dioxide plus energy
What is photosynthesis?
the process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water. Photosynthesis in plants generally involves the green pigment chlorophyll and generates oxygen as a byproduct.
Where is chlorophyll located in a plant cell?
Chlorophyll gives leaves their green color and absorbs light that is used in photosynthesis. Chlorophyll is found in high concentrations in chloroplasts of plant cells. Absorption maxima of chlorophylls against the spectrum of white light.
Why are most plants green?
Chlorophyll is a green pigment that gives most plants their color.The reason that it is green is because it absorbs other colors of light such as red and blue, so in a way the green light is reflected out since the pigment does not absorb it.
Describe mitosis. Why do organisms undergo mitosis?
Cells divide and reproduce in two ways: mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis is a process of cell division that results in two genetically identical daughter cells developing from a single parent cell. Meiosis, on the other hand, is the division of a germ cell involving two fissions of the nucleus and giving rise to four gametes, or sex cells, each possessing half the number of chromosomes of the original cell.
Mitosis is used by single-celled organisms to reproduce; it is also used for the organic growth of tissues, fibers, and membranes. Meiosis is found in sexual reproduction of organisms. The male and female sex cells (i.e., egg and sperm) combine to create new, genetically different offspring.
Cancer is a disease of what cellular process? Down's syndrome?
Cancer is a class of diseases characterized by out-of-control cell growth. There are over 100 different types of cancer, and each is classified by the type of cell that is initially affected.
The most common form of Down syndrome is known as Trisomy 21, a condition where individuals have 47 chromosomes in each cell instead of 46. This is caused by an error in cell division called nondisjunction, which leaves a sperm or egg cell with an extra copy of chromosome 21 before or at conception.
Describe meiosis. What is its purpose?
Meiosis i/maɪˈoʊsɨs/ is a specialized type of cell division which reduces the chromosome number by half. This process occurs in all sexually reproducing eukaryotes (both single-celled and multicellular) including animals, plants, and fungi.
Describe the structure of DNA. Include the sugar and bases involved, number of strands, and bond that composes the backbone of the molecule.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (i/diˌɒksiˌraɪbɵ.njuːˌkleɪ.ɨk ˈæsɪd/; DNA) is a molecule that encodes the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and many viruses. DNA is a nucleic acid; alongside proteins and carbohydrates, nucleic acids compose the three major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life. Most DNA molecules consist of two biopolymer strands coiled around each other to form a double helix. The two DNA strands are known as polynucleotides since they are composed of simpler units called nucleotides. Each nucleotide is composed of a nitrogen-containing nucleobase—either guanine (G), adenine (A), thymine (T), or cytosine (C)—as well as a monosaccharide sugar called deoxyribose and a phosphate group. The nucleotides are joined to one another in a chain by covalent bonds between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate of the next, resulting in an alternating sugar-phosphate backbone. According to base pairing rules (A with T and C with G), hydrogen bonds bind the nitrogenous bases of the two separate polynucleotide strands to make double-stranded DNA.
Describe the semiconservative nature of DNA replication.
the semiconservative nature means that each DNA molecule after replication will contain one old and one new strand.
Discuss the base pairing rules of DNA.
The rules of base pairing explain the phenomenon that whatever the amount of adenine (A) in the DNA of an organism, the amount of thymine (T) is the same (called Chargaff's rule). Similarly, whatever the amount of guanine (G), the amount of cytosine (C) is the same.
Describe natural selection without using the cliché "survival of the fittest".
Individual organisms within a species exhibit variation that can be passed from one generation to the next-that is, they have heritable variation.
-organisms compete for availible rescourses, organisms within a population differ in terms of their reproductive success, organisms become adapted to conditions as the environment changes.
What is the bottleneck effect?
A natural disaster that kills a large portion of the population. results in severe reduction in the gene pool that can drastically affect allele frequencies.
Discuss directional, disruptive, and stabilizing selection.
Directional Selection: when an extreme phenotype is favored and the distrubution curve shifts in that direction. This change os average phenotype population(EX: increase in the size of the modern horse can be correlated with the change in environment from forest conditions to grassland conditions.
Disruptive Selection: Tow or more extreme phenotypes are favored over any intermediate phenotype (EX: british land snails have a wide habitat range that includes grass feilds, hedgerows, and forest areas. in areas of low lying vegitation thrushes feed on snails with dark shells that lack light bands and in forested ares they feed on snails with light banded shells. therefore the two different habbitats have resulted in two different phenotypes of population.
Stabalizing selection: Extremem phenotypes are selected against and individuals near the average are favored. It can imporve adaptaion of the population to the aspects of environment that remain constant. (EX: human birth weight- infants born with intermediate birthweight have a better chance of survival than those at either extreme or less than average. AKA when a baby is small its systems may not be fully functional and when a baby is too big it may have experienced a difficult delivery.
What is sexual selection?
natural selection arising through preference by one sex for certain characteristics in individuals of the other sex.
EX: in birds the males have colorful feathers to be beautiful to attract the female.
Fruit flies perform dances,Elephant seals fight over territiories to impress the female.
Differentiate analogy and homology giving examples.
Homology: similarity of parts of organs of different organisms caused by evolutionary derivation from a corresponding part of organ in a remote ancestor and usually has a similar embryonic organ. ex: Human, Cat, Whale, and bat having the same type of arm bone structures
Analogy: animals that belong to different groups but live in the same habitat, they live a similar life so they have the same characteristics and devolop the same structures ex: Butterflies, Birds and bats
What is a biological species?
is a group of individuals which can breed together (panmixia). However, they cannot breed with other groups. In other words, the group is reproductively isolated from other groups
What is reproductive isolation? Differentaite pre-zygotic and post zygotic. List and discuss the methods of pre-zygotic.
The environment may impose an external barrier to reproduction, such as a river and mountain range, between two incipient species but that external barrier alone will not make them seperate full fledged species.
Prezygotic isolations prevent a hybrid from happening.
Postzygotic isolation fail to keep species in reproductive isolation from eachother, they ensure that speciation is the preferred route for evolution and diversity. Hybrids are produced.
Define allopatric speciation.
Fance name for speciation by gegraphic isolation, something extrisic to the other organisms prevents two or more groups from mating with eachother regularly, eventually causing that lineage to speciate
List the taxonomical levels in order from specific to most general.
Species, Genus, Family, Order, Class, Phylum,Kingdom, Domain
Discuss the three domain system and what organisms are found within each domain.
biological classification introduced by carl woese in 1977 that devides cellular life forms into archaea, bacteria and eukaryote domains.
Discuss the structure of a gram-negative bacteria.
A class of bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain ised in gram staining method of bacterial diffrentiation, making posotive identification possible.
Discuss the structure of a virus.
virusus are composed of cells, they are Acellular. also they are obligate parasites meaning that they can reproduce only inside a living cell by utilizing atleast some of the machinery of that cell.
Put the steps of the viral life cycle in order
The simplest eukaryotes are the-
Which group of protists are the closest relatives to land plants?
Describe the theory of endosymbiosis?
Mitochondria and plastids and possibly oher organelles represent former free living bacteria that were taken inside another cell as an endosymbiont around 1.5 billion years ago.
Members of which kingdom cause the diseases Malaria, Traveler's Diarrhea, and African Sleeping Sickness.
Members of which kingdom would cause acne.
HIV primarily infects what system?
List the plant groups in order of evolution including algae.
Chlorophytes, liverworts, mosses, lycophytes,ferns and allies, gymnosperms, flowering plants
What key innovation helped seed-bearing plants reproduce in dry environments.
the seed developed an ovule with an ovary and becomes a fruit that helps spread the seeds about to then be fertilized.
What group coevolved with insects? Why is this important? What type of symbiosis is this?
Angiosperms, it increased in morphological and ecologica diversity.
What structures do gymnosperms lack that are found in angiosperms?
What is the male part of a flower?
Stamen( INcludes the anther)
What structure found in angiosperms is responsible for the dispersal of the seeds?
What group composes most of plant species today?
How are the seeds of a sticker burr or sweetgum ball dispersed?
they stick to predators or large animals. They are eaten and dispersed through poop
What are petals? What is their function?
Are modified leaves and may take on various colors and shapes and are used to attract bird and insect pollinators
Which kingdom of organisms is responsible for producing antibiotics, causing infections such as athlete's foot and ringworm, and is used in the production of beer, wine, and cheese?
What is the role of fungi in the environment?
Most serve as decomposers(saprophytes) in the environment feeding on dead decaying organic matter, or form mutualistic symbiosis with other organisms.
How would you describe an animal: unicellular or multicellular? Heterotrophic or autotrophic? What stage of their life cycle is longer, haploid or diploid?
Multicellular, heterotrophic and diploid
Are most of the animals alive today are invertebrates or vertebrates?
The most numerous, diverse, and widespread animals belong to what phylum?
An organism that can fly and has an exoskeleton would be considered a member of what phylum?
What are the common characteristics of all vertebrates?
Having a vertebral column and skull made of either bone or cartilage
What group of animals was the first to display a vertebrate jaw?
Advanced fish but also amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals
Most amphibians are completely dependent on an aquatic environment for what event?
What living group were the first tetrapods?
What adaptation allowed reptiles to complete their life cycles on land?
Shelled amniotic eggs
List the groups of animals considered endothermic.
Class aves (birds), Class mammalia
What are the ancestors of birds? The ancestors of birds were flightless but did they have feathers? Were they endothermic or exothermic?
Feathered, endothermic dinosaurs that survived mass extinction
List the adaptations for flight seen in birds.
Feathers, hollow bones, air sacs, wings, efficient respiration and a 4-chambered heart
What characteristics are shared amongst all mammals?
Having fur, being endothermic and having mammary glands
Which group of mammals exhibits the widest distribution and greatest diversity?
The specific role or function of an organism or species in an ecosystem
List these events in order: germination, pollination, fertilization, and seed formation.
Pollination, fertilization, seed formation and germination
The tendency toward a relatively stable equilibrium between interdependent elements, especially as maintained by physiological processes. Example is the body's ability to maintain an internal temperature of 98.6 degrees.
What is the function of the plasma membrane?
Regulates passage of substances into and out of the cell. Responsible for maintain homeostasis and is said to be selectively permeable allowing some substances to pass more easily than others.
What is endocytosis? List and describe the two types?
The taking in of matter by a living cell by invagination of its membrane to form a vacuole. The two types of endocytosis are phagocytosis and pinocytosis. Phagocytosis is called "cell-eating" while pinocytosis is called "cell drinking".
What is the importance of a plant cell wall in a hypotonic solution?
When the plant cell is placed in a hypotonic solution, it takes up water by osmosis and starts to swell, but the cell wall prevents it from bursting.
The tendency of a fluid, usually water, to pass through a semipermeable membrane into a solution where the solvent concentration is higher, thus equalizing the concentrations of materials on either side of the membrane.
Define diffusion. What type of transport is diffusion,active or passive, and why?
The movement of atoms or molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Diffusion is passive transport because it moves down the concentration gradient and doesn't require energy.
What is meant by selectively permeable?
A selectively permeable cell membrane is one that allows certain molecules or ions to pass through it by means of active or passive transport.