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1- Olfactory

- Function: carries impulse for sense of smell (sensory)
- Testing: person asked to sniff various aromatic substances

2- Optic

- Function: carries impulses for vision (sensory)
- Testing: eye chart testing, visual field testing

3- Oculomotor

- Function: fibers to the superior, inferior and medical rectus muscles of the eye and to the smooth muscle controlling lens shape; medial and vertical eye mvmts (motor); proprioception of the eye (sensory)
- Testing: pupil sizes are compared for shape and equality; pupillary reflex tested; visual tracking tested

4- Trochlear

- Function: proprioceptor and motor fibers for superior oblique muscle of the eye; downward and inward eye mvmts
- Testing: tested w/CN 3 relative to following moving objects

5- Trigeminal

- Function: motor and sensory for face, conducts sensory sensory impulses from mouth, nose, eyes; motor fibers for muscles of mastication; ctrl of jaw mvmts
- Testing: pain, touch and temp tested w/proper stimulus; corneal reflex tested w/a wisp of cotton; person asked to move jaw through full ranges of motion

6- Abducens

- Function: motor and proprioceptor fibers to/from lateral rectus muscle; lateral eye mvmts
- Testing: tested in conjunction w/CN 3 relative to moving eye laterally

7- Facial

- Function: mixed (sensory and motor): sensory fibers to taste buds and anterior 2/3 of tongue; motor fibers to muscles of facial expression and to salivary glands
- Testing: check symmetry of face, ask person to attempt various facial expressions; sweet, salty, sour and bitter substances applied to tongue to test tasting ability

8: Vestibulocochlear

- Function: transmits impulses for senses of equilibrium and hearing (sensory)
- Testing: hearing checked w/tuning fork

9: Glossopharyngeal

- Function: motor fibers for pharynx and salivary glands; sensory fibers for pharynx and posterior tongue; taste sensation for sweet, bitter, sour
- Testing: gag and swallow reflexes checked; posterior one third of tongue tested for taste

10: Vagus

- Function: sensory/motor impulses for larynx and pharynx; parasympathetic motor fibers supply smooth muscles of abdominal organs; sensory impulses from viscera
- Testing: tested in conjunction w/CN 9

11: Spinal Accessory

- Function: sensory/motor fibers for sternocleidomastoid, trapezius muscles, muscles of soft palate, pharynx and larynx; mvmt of neck and shoulders
- Testing: sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscle testing

12: Hypoglossal

- Function: motor/sensory fibers to/from tongue; mvmt of tongue
- testing: ask person to stick tongue out, positional abnormalities noted

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