Teaching Reading Praxis (5204)
Terms in this set (116)
*current and ongoing assessment
*examples include: screening, progress monitoring and diagnostic measures
*it is used frequently during the year to help determine which students are experiencing difficulties
*provides the information needed to adjust teaching and learning while they are happening
*assessment for learning
*used to measure students' overall learning of the curriculum and content standards
*typically provide information to assist in the evaluation of group instruction and overall program effectiveness
*Are given periodically to determine at a particular point in time what students know and do not know
*An accountability measure that is generally used as part of the grading process at the district and classroom level
*Helps evaluate the effectiveness of programs, school improvement goals, alignment of curriculum, or student placement in specific programs
*Assessment of learning
Four Purposes of the comprehensive assessment system
*determines the level of mastery of state-adopted grade-level literacy standards
*determines if students are making adequate progress or need more intervention to master grade-level literacy standards
*provides in-depth information about a student's strengths and instructional needs
*provides a bottom-line evaluation of how proficient students are with literacy expectations
*the collection of data during classroom activities using observation, conferencing, student projects, and work samples
*the most significant instructional strategy to move students forward in their learning
*provides students with an understanding of what they are doing well, links to classroom learning, and gives specific input on how to reach the next step in the learning progression
* it is teacher directed, clearly stated, distinctly illustrated (not merely implied or ambiguous), and capable of clarifying key points
*students are told exactly what they are expected to learn
*teachers will model what is expected using clear examples that make sense to the students
*provide guidance as students practice
*promote independent application
*is extremely focused, concentrated, energetic, and emotional
*teachers are persistent and relentless in adjusting instruction to assure students success
*teachers insist that students do the work
*teachers celebrate success
*teachers increase the challenge as students demonstrate understanding
*teachers communicate in a variety of ways "You can do this!"
*student materials that are aligned with what is being taught
*at least 90% word accuracy for texts used in teacher-directed instruction
*at least 95% word accuracy for texts used in independent practice
Coordination Across Instructional Settings
*the teacher(s) provide explanations, demonstrations, guided practice, and opportunities for independent practice in many different contexts
*this is when multiple programs are used and when students receive instruction by more than one teacher, coordination across instructional settings (i.e. implementing instructional activities from different programs that lack a common focus)
*Active building of meaning
*Saying the words correctly
*Recognizing words instantaneously
*Reading connected text with ease and minimal effort
*Reading with accuracy and automaticity, as well as appropriate speed, phrasing, and expression
Active Building of Meaning
*Making ongoing efforts to construct meaning from the text
*Drawing on all resources(e.g. knowledge, experiences, language) to understand what they are reading
*using comprehension strategies such as predicting, questioning, and visualizing to help make sense of text
*knowing at all stages of the reading whether or not the text is "making sense"
*addressing problems as they emerge(includes problems at the word and text level)
*choosing to be actively involved before, during, and after reading
*an awareness of speech sounds, including: words, syllables, onsets, rimes and phonemes
*the umbrella under which phonemic awareness is a part
*matching the ending sounds of words
*example (star, are, far, car; high, sky, buy, fly)
*producing groups of words that begin with the same initial sound
*examples( star, sky, Simon, sun)
*Additional support: give clues for words (e.g. something you see in the sky during the daytime); say the onset and rime
*breaking sentences (or phrases of a song) into spoken words
*example: Twinkle twinkle Little Star
*combining sounds to say words or segmenting spoken words
*Additional supports: use fingers/counters or clapping/jumping
Onset and rimes
*blending and segmenting the initial consonant or consonant cluster and the vowel and consonant sounds that follow
*additional support: repeat the line that contains the target word
*the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate individual sounds in spoken words
*develops alongside a growing awareness of print concepts
*instruction is provided as need before the onset of phonics instruction
*the smallest unit of sound in a spoken word
*is represented in a written word by a grapheme, which may consist of one letter or several letters
*an understanding that phonemes of spoken words are mapped onto the letters of written words in systematic and predictable ways
* it is orderly, planned, and gradually builds from basic elements to more subtle and complex structures (simple to complex)
Effective Phonemic Awareness Instruction
*emphasize blending and segmenting tasks, the most critical skills for success in beginning reading
*make use of letter(printed words) when appropriate
*letters and printed words visually show children how sounds can be blended to form words and how words can be pulled apart into sounds
*focuses on teaching the relationships between sounds(phonemes) and letters(graphemes)
Effective Phonemic Awareness Instruction
*helps students use these relationships to read and write words
*includes blending, segmenting, and manipulating tasks as students practice using the taught letter-sound correspondences in their reading and spelling
*includes letter recognition activities as needed
Goal of Phonics Instruction
*acquisition of the alphabetic principle
*a logical ordering of letter-sound correspondences from simple to more complex
*consists primarily of words containing previously taught letter-sound correspondences
*these texts provide students with opportunities to apply the alphabetic principle and help them become accurate and automatic at processing all the information found within words
*features less controlled vocabulary than decodable texts
*these texts feature many words consisting of taught letter-sound correspondences and representing taught irregular words (e.g. said, of)
*also contains some untaught, irregular words and some words with regular but not yet taught letter-sound correspondences(e.g. "mouth")
"Levels" Used to Process Information within Words
*focuses on sound-by-sound processing
*the final "e" marker for long vowels- a silent and final "e" in many words signals a long vowel
*Common rimes-a rime consists of the vowel and everything that follows within a syllable
*a syllable consists of the rime and its onset(CVC- typically has a short vowel while a CV- has a long vowel sound
*focuses on groups of letters that represent meaningful word parts
*the smallest unit of meaning within a word
*includes prefixes, suffixes, and root words
*also known as structural analysis
Effective Phonics Instruction
*include blending, segmenting, and manipulating tasks as letter sound correspondences are taught
*Include activities in which students apply what they have been taught as they read and write words
*Provide sufficient practice so that students can become automatic and fluent in what was taught
*Use systematic assessment to inform instruction
Dealing with Multi-Syllable Words
*Identify recognizable chucks
*Identify the appropriate vowel phoneme
*Blend the chucks together and recognize the word
*is often quick paced, but not always
*readers slow down and process challenging text more deliberately
*they adjust their reading rates according to the purpose of the reading and the challenges posed by the text
Information Teacher Note When Monitoring Reading Fluency
*Word errors such as: substitutions and omissions
*Other deviations from the printed words(not considered errors) such as: Insertions, Repetitions, Self-Corrections
*Comments related to expression such as: Does the reader read smoothly and with ease? Does the reader make use of punctuation marks? Does the reader group words into meaningful phrases? Does the reader emphasize the most important words?
* making a check for each word and noting each error
Goal of Fluency Instruction
* to make the reading of words and sentences effortless so that students can attend to what the text means
Effective Fluency Instruction
*Model fluent reading and remind students of its features
*Provide practice in repeated oral reading (commonly called "rereading")
*Monitor rereading practice and provide feedback
*Ensure that students spend ample time reading and rereading texts that are at their independent levels
Research-Based Options for Rereading Practice and Feedback
*One-Minute timed readings ("DIBELS")
*the students read in unison
*teacher fades in and out as needed
*students take turns reading the selection or alternate reading portions of the selection
*Students repeat exactly what the teacher reads which should be short portions of text
*students read a text repeatedly as they rehearse and then perform the text
*Feedback is provided as needed
One-Minute Timed Readings
*students read a familiar text for one minute then record on a chart the number of words read
*students reread the same text several more times, each time recording on the same chart the number of words read
*when appropriate, the teacher discusses troublesome words and/or highlights items from a fluency reminder list
*refers to the words that we know
Four Categories of Vocabulary
*words we recognize and understand in oral language
*words we use in our speech
*words we recognize and understand in written texts
*words we use in our writing
"Tier One" Words
* basic words for example: milk, smile, jump
*these words rarely require instructional attention
"Tier Two" Words
*represent the bulk of vocabulary instruction
*these words need to be posted and kept in circulation so that students practice applying them in varied contexts over an extended period of time
"Tier Three" Words
*these words and concepts are typically emphasized as a par of thematic or content area instruction
*posting these words on a theme or topic wall encourages their use when discussing or writing about specific topics
Effective Vocabulary Instruction
*direct vocabulary using a variety of active and engaging approaches
*draw attention to target words over an extended period of time
*provide explicit instruction in word learning strategies
*engage students in activities for indirect vocabulary learning to occur such as: structured conversation, read aloud to students, and having access to appropriate texts and read extensively on their own
Factors that Influence Reading Comprehension
*reader's system of meaning overlaps sufficiently with the author's system of meaning
*reader's system of language overlaps sufficiently with the author's system of language
*reader reads word accurately
*reader automatically recognizes words
*reader reads fluently
*reader engages with the printed material
*an active and purposeful process that leads to understanding and remembering what was read
*recognizing story structure
*using graphic and semantic organizers
*accessing prior knowledge
*using mental imagery(visualizing)
*being aware of what is an what is not understood during the reading
*refers to anything that classroom teachers do to help students interact thoughtfully with text
*special reading instruction for struggling readers
Effective Reading Intervention
*More frequent use of assessment data to inform instruction and to document student growth
*More small group instruction- increase the time, reduce the pupil-teacher ratio, use flexible and varied grouping, and arrange for highly effective teachers to provide the instruction
*More highly skilled instruction such as: more explicit, more intensive, more practice reading appropriate texts, more coordination across instructional settings
*the most powerful organization for reading intervention
Increase the Time
*Intensive support(highest risk)- about three students per group
*Strategic support(some risk)- additional small group sessions as needed
*struggling reader need more time in small group instruction than their peers
Reduce the pupil-teacher Ratio
*Struggling readers need opportunities to participate in smaller groups than their peers
*teachers group and regroup students based on systematic and frequent progress monitoring
Zone of Proximal Development
*the distance between the (child's) actual development as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers
Parents can most effectively help preschoolers develop phonemic awareness for later success in reading by
*reading aloud many rhyming stories and poems
*research supports the view that phonemic awareness, including the ability to hear whether or not words rhyme, is critical to success in beginning reading
Many school districts have the goal of implementing technology to bring a variety of alternative texts into the classroom. Which is the most essential literacy skill for a student researcher to develop when using this technology?
*ability to assess the credibility of an electronic source
*reading and evaluating the credibility of an electronic source develops critical thinking skills
*students will develop skills to consider the purpose, audience, and validity of the source and consider if there is any bias in the way the information is presented
Which is the best way for a teacher to provide a positive reading environment for English-language learners?
*Including multicultural literature in the curriculum
*Many researchers have reported that the single most important factor that enables an ESL student to succeed academically in a targeted language is the socio-emotional climate of the classroom
*ESL students..... international themes, allow students to see themselves in literature, thus personalizing the learning of English
When a student who is reading aloud substitutes a word with a similar meaning for a word that appears in print, the teacher's most appropriate response would be to......
*allow the student to continue reading
*according to ken goodman, the developer of miscue analysis, miscues are not random and have a variety of causes
*miscues are a result of reader's constructions of the linguistic message and therefore are made by everyone when reading aloud
The primary purpose of administrating a miscue analysis assessment is to determine.....
*the nature of a student's oral reading difficulties
*miscue analysis is used to give the teacher information about the kind of miscues the student is making
*an analysis of a student's patterns of miscues can lead to effective intervention that focuses on his/her current reading needs
The Three Cueing Systems
As part of a reading class, a teacher requires students to keep a response journal for the texts they have read. The teacher's purpose in having the students write their responses is that writing can......
*help students discover more of what they think and feel about a text
*response journals will offer students an opportunity to connect their lives to the text and also deepen their understanding
Students in a science class are reading a chapter on symbiosis. Which strategy is likely to help students understand and remember different kinds of symbiotic relationships?
*assisting the students in creating a graphic organizer of the important concepts
*graphic organizers provide a visual representation of facts and concepts from a text and their relationships within an organized frame to better understand and relate ideas
Research shows that fluency increases when readers frequently engage in easy reading. Which is most likely to be effective in making easy books acceptable to a nonfluent older student?
*providing opportunities for the older student to discuss with classmates the experience of reading self-selected books to a younger student
*fluency refers to reading smoothly, quickly, and with expression
Which is a characteristic of the language experience approach to teaching reading to beginning readers?
*emphasis on the connection between oral and written language
*in addition to providing enthusiasm for reading and writing, the language experience approach helps students make the connection that words on paper are really just "talk written down"
*the motto of the language experience approach is "Anything I can say, I can write; anything I can write, I can read"
The best way to develop students' metacognitive skills is for teachers to.....
*advocate and model self-questioning during reading
*in order to create strategic readers, it is important to show students how to use the strategy and be explicit about why the strategy is helpful to them
Which procedure is specifically designed to increase sight vocabulary and fluency and accuracy of oral reading, has research shown to be particularly effective?
*using a repeated reading program and easy reading material
*research indicates that repeated readings will improve fluency
*the repetition of these materials will also help students improve their recognition and recall of sight words
A teacher is concerned that his intermediate level students use nonstandard English patterns in their speech and writing. A colleague who has kept abreast of recent trends would be most likely to advise the teacher to.......
*provide experiences from which the students can conclude that different usage styles are appropriate in different situations
*providing examples of standard English and allowing students to explicitly learn the differences between their home language and school language without judgment allows students to transition more easily
The above mentioned devices should most likely be taught when studying which genre of writing
*the four devices are used to persuade readers
A teacher is designing an instructional plan for a small group of students who are having difficulty decoding unfamiliar multisyllabic words. The most appropriate approach to address the students' need is to teach them to.....
* look for affixes and morphemes in multisyllabic words
*research suggests that teaching students to recognize affixes or morphemes is an effective way to aid students in decoding multisyllabic words
What best describes the purpose of reading response journals?
*allowing students to reflect on and explore the meaning of the stories read
*students record predictions, personal or textual connections, inferences, summaries, evaluations, and more
*teachers can direct students to share their responses with one another, creating a dialogue about the text
*students deepen their comprehension of text by responding in a variety of ways to what they read
What is an effective instructional strategy for helping kindergarten students develop an understanding of concepts of print?
*modeling how to track during shared reading
*children are more likely to attend to print when engaged in shared reading with an adult who uses print referencing behavior
When teaching students how to use structural analysis to learn new words, what word would best lend itself to this skill?
*structural analysis is the use of prefixes, suffixes, and root words to understand the meaning of an unknown word
*abnormal has a prefix and a rood word and so would be useful in teaching structural analysis
What teacher prompt(s) would best assess a first grade student's phonemic awareness?
*say to the student, "sound out he separate sounds in the word 'bat'."
*a child who possesses phonemic awareness can manipulate the sounds in spoken words
Read the scenario and then respond to all parts of the task. The suggested time to spend on this questions is 10 minutes.
The early childhood teachers in a school have decided to implement interdisciplinary science units with a focus on reading. The district has implemented a policy that all schools must include a technology component that will support reading instruction.
Be sure to include both of the following:
*Briefly describe an instructional material the teachers would use within these units to support the reading focus. Explain the criteria used to evaluate the material in meeting these instructional needs
*Briefly describe an activity using technology with the interdisciplinary science units. Specify how the activity supports student reading goals.
*teacher can use trade books to help integrate reading into a science unit, The instructional material that is needed is a variety of books on the differing reading levels of the students. An example of the would be teaching a science unit on deserts. The teacher would collect books at different readability levels on living in a desert, animals in a desert, or any other related topics to use with the class. The criteria used to ensure the books meet instructional needs are that they are at an appropriate reading level for the students, have a connection to the topic being studied, and containing accurate information. A technological activity the students could do would be an online net lab. The students would, for example, be required to follow written instructions as they completed a simulation of a lab activity such as the dissection of an owl pellet. Reading skills such as cause and effect could be reinforced with a web quest through which students discovered and observed relationships between actions. Related hands on activities could be linked to the web quest tasks. By using these methods of integrating science and reading, the teachers can meet the technology component mandated by the district and further support students' reading development
What is the most accurate statement about the language acquisition process of young children?
*young children infer the underlying rules of language to which they are exposed
*according to psycholinguists and other who specialize in human growth and development, young children begin to acquire the ability to communicate through hypothesis testing
*children's perception of adult speech helps them form hypotheses about how different ideas are expressed in the language they are acquiring, and they test their hypotheses
What pair of words demonstrate the different letter combinations can represent the same speech sound?
*"ph" and "gh" fall into the category of consonant irregularities with consonant combinations that have a unique sound
*both the "ph" in "phone" and the "gh" in "laugh" represent the sound of /f/
How many morphemes are in the word "rerecorded"?
*a morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit in the grammar of a language
*the unit "re" is a prefix meaning back or again
*the unit "record" is the base that gives the word its meaning
*the word part "ed" indicates past tense
What is the best way for a teacher to asses students' phonemic awareness?
*say the word "lamp" and ask students to break into individual sounds
*a student who possesses phonemic awareness can segment sounds in spoken words and blend strings of isolated sounds together to form recognizable words
A fifth grade class studies the American Revolution. The teacher wants students to understand the differences in perceptions between the colonists who believed their actions in the Boston Tea Party were legitimate protests against British taxation, and the British who thought the colonists were engaged in rebellion against their government.
What activity would be most effective in helping students understand the differences in perceptions?
*create a Venn Diagram to compare and contrast the concepts of protest and rebellion
*a Venn diagram is a graphic organizer used to compare and contrast
A teacher notes that a student is consistently not meeting grade-level performance standards. What should be the classroom teacher's first step be?
*adjust instructional techniques to meet the student's unique learning needs
*the purpose of assessment is to use the data to drive appropriate instruction to meet a student's unique needs
When preparing to do a close reading of a complex text with students, what is important to know?
*students should read the text multiple times and focus on a different outcome during each reading
*close reading is a technique in which students read challenging texts multiple times, each time for a different purpose; e.g., to determine what a text says and to clarify confusions, to determine how the text works, and to evaluate the value of the text and connect it to other texts
*the teacher's major role is to ask text-dependent questions that require students to interpret what they have read and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding
*instructional time should be focused primarily on students reading and interacting with the text
What text-dependent questions best focuses students to think about the craft and structure of a text?
*how did the author describe Bradley's uncle? Why did the author choose to describe him that way?
*asking about the author's word choices encourages students to think about the author's intentions and how these choices affect the reading experiences
What best reflects research about teaching alphabetic principle to young students?
*teaching students continuous vowel and consonant sounds before stop(or clipped) sounds
*continuous vowel or consonant sounds can be prolonged or stretched out when they are pronounced and are easier to say with out distortion
*voiced stop sounds are not as easy to pronounce in isolation without a vowel sound
A teacher listens to Zane, a fourth grade student, read an unfamiliar passage aloud for one minute. He read at an average rate but with poor expression. He accurately decoded 98% of the words in the passage. Based on the results of the assessment, what actions should a teacher take to best improve Zane's reading ability?
*providing explicit instruction and modeling of prosodic reading of text
*the student demonstrates difficulties in oral reading prosody
*providing direct instruction and modeling fluent, prosodic reading is the most effective instructional strategy to assist the student's specific reading needs
A class prepares to read a science text about an unfamiliar, complex process. The best way the teacher can support students' successful reading of the text is to......
*assign a small portion of text, and then pause for discussion and student questions before moving on
*assigning a small section of a complex science text and pausing for discussion allow students to monitor their comprehension and apply fix-up strategies if breakdowns in understanding have occurred
What practice(s) is most appropriate for a teacher to use when determining the placement of students into flexible groups for reading instruction?
*using formal and informal measures to inform instruction that targets students' changing needs
*flexible grouping is a form of differentiated instruction in which a teacher uses a combination of formal and informal assessments and observations to meet the needs of individual students
*based on the data, small groups of students are formed and the teacher provides systematic and explicit instruction in identified skill areas
*how long and how often the teacher meets with a group varies depending on student needs
Research indicates that a relationship exists between reading and writing. What statement supports the finding?
*reading and writing share similar processes and require using the same kinds of knowledge
*research has shown that readers and writers use the same kinds of knowledge when constructing meaning
*both processes, for example, require knowledge of sound and letter relationships, language conventions, organization, content, pragmatics and purpose
What technique can best be used to teach students how to red phonetically irregular words?
*maintaining a word wall of high-frequency sight words
*irregular words(was, give, come, of) have uncommon phoneme-grapheme relationships and cannot be sounded out
*maintaining a classroom word wall is an effective way to provide students with repeated exposures to phonetically irregular words
While reading a complex piece of text, a teacher asks students to record their reactions in the margin, including their questions, summaries, ad personal connections. The primary purpose of the activity is to........
*ensure active comprehension monitoring
*good readers are extremely active as they read
*when students respond in writing as they read a complex piece of text by asking questions, summarizing, and making personal connections, they are encouraged to think strategically about what and why they are reading
*through annotation, the student creates a visual record of his thoughts while making sense of the text
Explicit teaching begins with little teacher input and moves toward extensive teacher support for student learning.(TRUE or FALSE)
Students have multiple opportunities to practice a skill on their own and to receive teacher feedback as needed. (TRUE or FALSE)
Teacher modeling of the skill or strategy is one of the first steps in explicit teaching. (TRUE or FALSE)
The first step in explicit teaching is to set a purpose for what he students are about to learn. (TRUE or FALSE)
Student inquiry, independent exploration, and hypothesis creation are more important parts of explicit teaching. (TRUE or FALSE)