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Terms in this set (188)
A situation in which one major political party controls the presidency and the other controls the chambers of Congress, or in which one party controls a state governorship and the other controls the state legislature.
A formal agreement between the U.S. president and the leaders of other nations that does not require Senate approval.
A rule issued by the president that has the force of law
Action taken by a president to communicate directly with the people, usually through a press conference, radio broadcast, or televised speech, in order to influence public opinion and put pressure on Congress
A formal accusation of misconduct in office against a public official
Presidential power to strike, or remove, specific items from a spending bill without vetoing the entire package; declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
A veto taking place when Congress adjourns within 10 days of submitting a bill to the president, who simply lets it die by neither signing nor vetoing it.
A system of government in which the legislative and executive branches operate independently of each other
A presidential document that reveals what the president thinks of a new law and how it ought to be enforced.
A system of public employment based on rewarding party loyalists and friends.
The same party controls the White House and both houses of Congress
a public statement issued by the president declaring that if Congress passes a particular bill that the president dislikes it will ultimately be vetoed
Presidential custom of submitting the names of prospective appointees for approval to senators from the states in which the appointees are to work.
Chief executive's power to reject a bill passed by a legislature
If the President vetoes a bill, the Congress may override the veto by a two-thirds majority vote in both houses. The bill would then become law, the President's objections notwithstanding.
A declaration of forgiveness and freedom from punishment
power to persuade
a president's ability to convince Congress, other political actors, and the public to cooperate with the administration's agenda
The ability of a governor (or a U.S. president) to focus the attention of the press, legislators, and citizens on legislative proposals that he or she considers important. The visibility of the office gives the chief executive instant public attention.
the president's use of his prestige and visibility to guide or enthuse the American public
emergency or crisis meetings which can only be called by the president
Consists of those rules and procedures established by regulatory agencies.
When regulatory agencies are beholden to the organizations or interests they are supposed to regulate.
Bureaucrats' tendency to implement policies in a way that favors their own political objectives rather than following the original intentions of the legislation.
The fifteen largest and most influential agencies of the federal bureaucracy (e.g., Department of State, Treasury, Justice...) Headed by Secretary or Attorney General (Department of Justice)
When a shift in elected branches creates disparity between the way an agency makes policy and the way new members of Congress or a new president believes the agency ought to execute policy
Congressional oversight hearings designed to investigate a problem after it has become highly visible.
the agencies and offices devoted to carrying out the tasks of government consistent with the law
A government agency that operates like a business corporation, created to secure greater freedom of action and flexibility for a particular program.
privately funded organizations or individuals who operate independently to do work that is sanctioned by the government
Federal board or commission that is not part of any cabinet department
congressional oversight that consists of actively monitoring agencies through routine inspection
An executive branch in which power and policy implementation are divided among several executive agencies rather than centralized under one person; the governor does not get to appoint most agency heads
Elected by the voters. He or she presides over the Senate unless he or she is Acting Governor
Chief lawyer for the state government; Unlike the office's counterpart at the national level, the Attorney General's legal role is primarily civil rather than criminal. Any time a suit is filed against or by the state, the AG's office handles the related legal activities
balanced budget requirement
a law forcing a given government to balance its budget by the end of each fiscal year
secretary of state
Advises the president on foreign policy affairs. Is the chief representative of the US to other countries.
1883 law that created a Civil Service Commission and stated that federal employees could not be required to contribute to campaign funds nor be fired for political reasons
President's power is to persuade, not to command
President uses individual powers to produce informal amendments
Powers specifically given to Congress in the Constitution; including the power to collect taxes, coin money, regulate foreign and interstate commerce, and declare war.
Powers not specifically mentioned in the constitution
An implied presidential power that allows the president to refuse to disclose information regarding confidential conversations or national security to Congress or the judiciary.
A brief submitted by a "friend of the court"
A model that suggests that judges' decisions are largely, if not exclusively, determined by their personal ideological and policy preferences
A case involving a noncriminal matter such as a contract dispute or a claim of patent infringement
A law that governs relationships between individuals and defines their legal rights.
Lawsuit brought by an individual or group of people on behalf of all those similarly situated
body of law developed from custom or judicial decisions in English and US courts
An opinion that agrees with the majority in a Supreme Court ruling but differs on the reasoning.
A case in which a defendant is tried for committing a crime as defined by the law
An opinion by a judge who voted in the minority, explaining the reasons for opposing the majority opinion
federal court supremacy
The arrangement, based on the supremacy clause in the Constitution, that gives federal courts the authority to overturn state court decisions and to decide on the constitutionality of state laws and actions
An interpretation of the U.S. constitution holding that the spirit of the times and the needs of the nation can legitimately influence judicial decisions (particularly decisions of the Supreme Court)
Authority given the courts to review constitutionality of acts by the executive/state/legislature; est. in Marbury v. Madison
a theory of judicial decision-making in which judges make decisions deciphering the correct interpretation of the law and the relevant portion of the Constitution, and determining whether there is a conflict between the two
(adj.) open to discussion and debate, unresolved; (v.) to bring up for discussion; (n.) a hypothetical law case argued by students
A permanent committee established in a legislature, usually focusing on a policy area
"let the decision stand" A common law doctrine under which judges are obligated to follow the precedents established in prior decisions
the theory of judicial decision-making in which judges consider their own policy preferences as well as the possible actions of the other branches of government when making decisions
the legal philosophy that judges should use the intentions of those writing the law or the constitution as guides for how to interpret the law
writ of certiorari
A formal writ used to bring a case before the Supreme Court.
(civil law) a law established by following earlier judicial decisions
Examples to be followed in similar cases as they arise in the lower courts or reach the Supreme Court.
(civil law) a law established by following earlier judicial decisions
laws passed by a state or the federal legislature
A law passed and enforced by a city government, city laws
A court's power to hear and decide a matter before any other court can review the matter
Authority for both state and federal courts to hear and decide cases
Authority of court to review a decision of a lower court or administrative agency.
A system of justice in which advocates for opposing parties each do their best to present evidence and arguments to the benefit of their respective clients; presiding judges are neutral and passive.
A formal charge by a grand jury
People who engage in organized criminal activity, repeat offenders, and those who commit hate crimes are punished as though they committed the next higher degree of felony.
marbury v. madison
(1803) Marbury was a midnight appointee of the Adams administration and sued Madison for commission. Chief Justice Marshall said the law that gave the courts the power to rule over this issue was unconstitutional. established judicial review
A presidential appointee and the third-ranking office in the Department of Justice. The solicitor general is in charge of the appellate court litigation of the federal government.
brown v. board of education
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
plessy v. ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
A term used to characterize the recent trend in network television news production that blends analysis with entertainment. Many experts believe this trend can be linked to many other trends in politics and voter behavior. A good example is the ever-growing illusion that a Hollywood break-up is actually news
Instant dissemination to a mass audience. communication from a single source to many people, separates the sender and receiver (i.e. newspaper, magazine, book, radio, TV, film, etc)
Determining which public-policy questions will be debated or considered.
A process of preparing the public to take a particular view of an event or a political actor.
Ability of the media to influence public perception of issues by constructing the issue or discussion of a subject in a certain way
licensing condition promulgated by the FCC requiring any station that gave or sold time to a legally qualified candidate for public office to make equal time available to all such candidates on equal terms
An FCC requirement that broadcasters who air programs on controversial issues provide time for opposing views
minimal effects thesis
1. media has little impact on public opinion 2. people ignore information with which they disagree. 3. people absorb info with which they agree. 4. initial finding of research on media shows that it has only subtle effect. people have attitudes/ predispositions that are hard to move, so media has little effect in changing a voters view or stance on issues
Individuals tendencies to expose themselves to messages that are consistent with their prior beliefs.
Paying attention only to those news stories with which one already agrees
A subpart of a larger population that does not accurately reflect characteristics of the whole population
A comprehensive set of beliefs about the nature of people and about the role of an institution or government.
margin of error
A measure of the accuracy of a public opinion poll.
a lack of opinion on an issue, or an opinion so weakly held that it does not enter into a person's calculations about voting or taking some other political action, even though the person may express an opinion to a pollster
A citizen's self-proclaimed preference for one party or the other (Partisanship)
A rule of thumb based on experience used to make decisions.
the belief that it is the citizen's duty to be informed and participate in politics
The belief that one's political participation really matters - that one's vote can actually make a difference
Process by which background traits influence one's political views
issues that are easily stated / linked to high emotions (abortion, gun control)
Complicated issues that require voters to have information about the policy and to spend time considering their choices.
A sample in which every element in the population has a known statistical likelihood of being selected.
Failure to identify the true distribution of opinion within a population because of errors such as ambiguous or poorly worded questions
Polls based on interviews conducted on Election Day with randomly selected voters
the franchise (suffrage)
The right to vote
Help America Vote Act of 2002
The law that passed in 2002 to regulate federal elections and help poorer counties acquire more modern voting machines.
paradox of voting
The question of why citizens vote even though their individual votes stand little chance of changing the election outcome.
All the activities used by citizens to influence the selection of political leaders or the policies they pursue
a general understanding of how the political system works and who runs the government
A belief that ultimate power resides in the people.
The efforts of parties, groups, and activists to encourage their supporters to turn out for elections.
A system adopted by the states that requires voters to register well in advance of Election Day. A few states permit Election day registration.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
1965; invalidated the use of any test or device to deny the vote and authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks; as more blacks became politically active and elected black representatives, it brought jobs, contracts, and facilities and services for the black community, encouraging greater social equality and decreasing the wealth and education gap
Calculus of voting
probability of vote mattering * personal benefit - cost + CIVIC DUTY
1. Voters want policies they favor adopted by government. 2. Parties want to win elected office
Riker and Ordeshook's model
Who came up with the updated calculus of voting?
sense of civic duty, part of the economic model equation:
costs of voting
costs: time and effort to register, gather info & decide, show up & vot
people tend to become somewhat more conservative as they age
People of the same age are affected by factors unique to their generation, leading to difference in performance between generations.
As opposed to the traditional "broadcasting," the appeal to a narrow, particular audience by channels such as ESPN, MTV, and C-SPAN, which focus on a narrow particular interest.
the skills of writing, speaking, analyzing, and organizing that reduce the cost of political participation
election focused groups that are not subject to FECA regulations - a 527 is part of the tax code that allows tax exemption for activities that promote democracy - they have become a loophole that is a key to going around FECA rules
A government printed ballot of uniform size and shape to be cast in secret that was adopted by many states around 1890 in order to reduce the voting fraud associated with party printed ballots cast in public.
A primary in which only registered members of a particular political party can vote
Election in which voters choose the candidates from each party who will run in the General Election
A closed meeting of a political or legislative group to choose candidates for office or to decide issues of policy
assumes that when a large group of like-minded individuals come together, collective action is going to happen
a theory that says that voters on the extreme ends of the ideological spectrum, as opposed to moderate voters, have strong influence over electoral outcomes and will influence candidates to campaign in favor of more extreme policies
Federal Election Commission
A six-member bipartisan agency created by the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1974. The Federal Election Commission administers and enforces campaign finance laws.
Donations made to political candidates, party committees, or groups which, by law, are limited and must be declared.
A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives
A procedure by which voters can propose a law or a constitutional amendment.
median voter theorem
The proposition that the outcome of a majority vote is likely to represent the preferences of the voter who is in the political middle.
A primary election in which voters may choose in which party to vote as they enter the polling place
a method for determining an election's winner in which the candidate who receives the most votes wins
an electoral system in which the winner is the person who gets the most votes, even if he or she does not receive a majority; used in almost all American elections
political action committee
committee formed by a special-interest group to raise money for their favorite political candidates
Super political action committee
Federally registered fundraising group that pools money from individuals to give to political candidates and parties. There is a limit to how much they can directly donate to a candidate, but no limiting how much money they can spend individually trying to get a candidate elected.
Present ideas that elicit strong feelings
speaking the language of the faithful, fusing god and country by linking american with divine will, and engaging in morality bellweather issues
1968 Democratic National Convention
significant event in presidential election of 1968; demonstrated the confusion and lack of unity among Democrats; outside, protests and police brutality
The race to raise the most money and achieve frontrunner status before the primary season begins.
McGovern Fraser Reforms
Instituted after 1968 Democratic National Convention, made presidential nominations more democratic.
Spatial voting theory
candidates will attempt to appeal to median voter to gain the most votes, and will position their policy stances as close to the median voter as possible - higher probability of winning
An election system in which each party running receives the proportion of legislative seats corresponding to its proportion of the vote.
a legislative act is referred for final approval to a popular vote by the electorate
An electoral district in which voters choose one representative or official.
Campaign contributions unregulated by federal or state law, usually given to parties and party committees to help fund general party activities.
17th Amendment; more democratic if voters selected their senators; senators selected by the coters of state they represent
A primary election in which each voter may vote for candidates from both parties
A second primary election held when no candidate wins a majority of the votes in the first primary
election held to fill a political office that has become vacant between regularly scheduled elections
Texas Ethics Commission
state agency responsible for enforcing requirements to report information on money collected and activities by interest groups and candidates for public office
Sharpstown stock fraud scandal
The legislative scandal of 1971-1972 that resulted in a bribery conviction of the House Speaker and other officials and set the stage for the 1973 reform session.
goods that are excludable but not rival in consumption
A public policy such as Social Security that provides benefits to all groups in society.
Federal Reserve Board
(WW) , A seven-member board that sets member banks reserve requirements, controls the discount rate, and makes other economic decisions.
Federal Reserve System
1913 - central banking system of the US - created by the Federal Reserve Act - quasi public system
Government policy that attempts to manage the economy by controlling taxing and spending.
Idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs.
Government policy that attempts to manage the economy by controlling the money supply and thus interest rates.
how much money over budget the government is in a given year
Goods that are both excludable and rival in consumption
A tax system where the tax rate is higher on higher incomes. The personal income tax in the United States, which ranges from 0% on the lowest incomes to 35% on the highest incomes, is progressive.
Goods that are neither excludable nor rival in consumption
A tax for which the percentage of income paid in taxes decreases as income increases
Economic ideal in support of gov intervention- gov should increase spending and decrease taxes to foster employment during downturns and decrease spending and increase taxes during upturns
A theory that government should control the money supply to encourage economic growth and restrain inflation.
An economic philosophy that holds the sharply cutting taxes will increase the incentive people have to work, save, and invest. Greater investments will lead to more jobs, a more productive economy, and more tax revenues for the government.
Lecture 26 video?
Government programs available only to individuals who qualify for them based on specific needs.
A health care payment program sponsored by federal & state governments
A federal program of health insurance for persons 65 years of age and older
No child left behind act
A law passed in 2001 that expanded federal funding to schools but required increased testing and accountability.
A national government's course of action designed to promote the welfare of its citizens
(FDR) 1935, guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health
Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program
the largest anti-poverty program, which provides recipients with a debit card for food at most grocery stores; formally know as food stamps
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families
program for public assistance to needy families, TANF requires people on welfare to find work within two years and sets a lifetime maximum of five years.
A policy adopted by the Bush administration in 2001 that asserts America's right to attack any nation that has weapons of mass destruction that might be used against U.S. interests at home or abroad.
Theory supported by empirical evidence that democratic states do not fight wars against each other, but do fight wars against authoritarian states
The art and practice of conducting negotiations between nations without arousing hostility
A theory of international relations that focuses on the hope the nations will act together to solve international problems and promote peace.
A national policy of actively trading with foreign countries to foster peace and prosperity
A policy of nonparticipation in international economic and political relations
The organized use of deadly force by a government.
an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers
A theory of international relations that focuses on the tendency of nations to operate from self-interest.
A state's ability to attract allies through the legitimacy of its policies and values
War Powers Act
1973. A resolution of Congress that stated the President can only send troops into action abroad by authorization of Congress or if America is already under attack or serious threat.
The doctrine that nations should conduct their foreign affairs individualistically without the advice or involvement of other nations
A philosophy that encourages individual nations tacked together to solve international problems.
Sets with similar terms
final terms (cawthon can **** my a**)
AP Government: Crash Course Vocab
US Politics Ch. 8-19 Summaries
Family Law & Public Policy Test One