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125 terms

Complete Speech Vocabulary

All the speech terms we have ever learned in this class...
STUDY
PLAY
communication
the deliberate or accidental transfer of a meaning
intrapersonal communication
communication with the self
interpersonal communication
the relationship level of communication
small group communication
interaction with a limited number of persons
mass communication
the transmission of messages which may be processed by gatekeepers prior to being sent to large audiences via a channel of broad diffusion
online or machine assisted communication
the building of relationships using computers and the internet
senders
persons who formulate, encode, and transmit a message
recievers
persons who recieve, decode, and interpret a message
message
the content of a communicative act
channels
media through which messages are sent
noise (interference)
anything that interferes with or distorts the ability to send a message. Keeps you from communicating as well as you should
context
the setting
feedback
information returned to a message source
positive
a behavior enhancing response
negative
a response that extinguishes behavior in progress
internal
a response you give yourself
external
a response from another
effect
the communication outcome (can be emotional or physical)
assimilation
the means by which co-culture members attempt to fit in with the dominant culture
accomodation
the means by which co-culture members maintain their cultural edentity while striving to establish relationships with the dominant culture
co-cultures
groups of persons who differ in some way from the parent culture
collectivist cultures
cultures in which group focus are stressed
cultural imperialism
the expansion of dominion of one culture over another culture
cultural pluralism
adherence to the principle of cultureal relativism
cultural relativism
acceptance of other cultural groups as equal in value to one's own
culturally confused
lacking an understanding of cultural difference
culture
a system of knowledge, beliefs, values, customs, behaviors, and artifacts that are acquired, shared, and used by members
digital divide
information gap
diversity
recognition and valuing of difference
ethnocentrism
tendency to see one's own culture as superior to all others
feminine cultures
cultures that value tenderness and relationship
high power distance cultures
cultures based on power differences in which subordinates defer to superiors
high context communications
a tradition bound communication system which depends on indirectness
individualistic cultures
cultures in which individual goals are expressed
intercultural communication
interactions with individuals from different cultures
international communications
communications between persons representing different nations
interacial communications
interpreting and sharing of meaning with individuals from different races
interethnic communications
interaction with individuals of different ethnic origins
intracultural commuication
interaction with members of the same racial/ethnic group or co-culture as yours
low power distance cultures
cultures that believe that power should be used only when legitamate
low context communication
system that encourages directness in communication
masculine cultures
cultures that value agressiveness, strength, and material symbols of success
melting pot philosophy
veiw that different cultures should be assimilated into the dominant culture
multiculturalists
persons respectful of and engaged with people from distinctively different cultures
prejudice
a positive or negative prejudgment
stereotypes
mental images, shortcuts that guide reactions
virtual neighborhoods and communities
online surrogate communities
separation
the means co-culture members resist interacting with members of the dominant culture
nonverbal cue
any human behavior that communicates a nonverbal message if assigned meaning by a sender, reciever, or social group
nonverbal communication
all behaviors, attributes, and objects of humans--other than words--that communicate messages and have shared social meanings
emblem
nonverbal cue that has meaning for a certain cultureal group, substitutes for a word and translates almost directly into a word phrase
illustrator
nonverbal cue that complements and accents a verbal message
mixed message
nonverbal cue that contradicts a verbal message
regulator
nonverbal cue that helps regulate and coordinate communication among people
socioemotional regulator
a nonverbal ce that lets others know a person's feelings and communciates roles in a relationship or particular situation
kinesics
body communication that focuses on how people communicate through movement and postures, gestures, and the face and the eyes.
gestures
large and small movements of the hands and arms that communicate meaning within a society or culture
affect display
facial expressions
affect blend
blending of two or more affect displays into one facial expression
micromomentary facial flash
expression that flashes across the face so quickly it is imperceptible
oculesics
using eye contact to communicate
haptics
touch; tactile contact among people
paralanguage
all the nonverbal elements involved in using the voice
vocalics
the nonverbal elements of the voice which includes rate, pitch, and intensity
rate
speed at which a speaker delivers a speech
pitch
highness ore lowness of a speaking voice
intensity
the volume of a speakers voice
nonfluency
frequent use of distractors and interrupters that slip out when you speak
chronemics
intentional and unintentional use of time to communicate
spatial arrangement
the ways spaces are laid out and relate to one another
artifact
objects in an environment that make nonverbal statements about the identity and personality of the owner
feng shui
Chinese approach to spatial arrangement suggesting that artifacts have unique powers when arranged in a certain way
proxemics
study of how people move around in and use space to communicate
personal space
how people distance themselves from one another
territoriality
how people stake out space for themselves
intimate space
space that starts at the skin and goes 18 inches around the person
social space
space that extends from 4 feet to about 12 feet around the speaker
public space
space that extends outward from 12 feet and beyond the speaker
appreciative listening
listening for enjoyment or relaxation
comprehension listening
listening to gain knowledge
critical listening
listening to evaluate the worth of a message
critical thinking
the careful and deliberate process of message evaluation
dialogue listening
listening that focuses on what happens to people as they respond to each other
empathic listening
listening to help others
evaluative feedback
a positive or negative judgement
formative feedback
timed negative feedback
hearing
the involutary physiological process by which we process sound
HURIER model
a model of listening focusing on six skill areas or stages
"I" messages
nonevaluative responses that convey our feelings about the nature of the situation
listening
the deliberate psychological process by which we recieve, understand, and retain aural stimuli
nonevaluative feedback
nondirective feedback
paraphrasing
restating in your own words what another person has said
probing
a nonevaluative technique in which we ask for additional information
red-flag words
words that trigger emotional deafness, dropping listening efficiency to zero
serial communication
a chain of command transmission
speech-thought differential
the difference between speaking and thinking rates
supportive feedback
a non evaluative response indicating that the reciever percieves a problem as important
understanding
a nonevaluative response that uses restatement to check comprehension
"you" messages
responses that place blame on another person
argumentum ad hominem
the use of name-calling in an argument
argumentum ad populum
a bandwagon appeal; an appeal to popular opinion
argumentum ad verecudiam
an appeal to authority
attitudes
predispositions to respond favorably or unfavorably toward a person or subject
balance
a state of psychological comfort in which one's actions, feelings, beliefs are related to each other as one would like them to be
beliefs
confidence in the truth of something
casual reasoning
speculation about the reasons ofr and effects of occurences
consistency
the desire to maintain balance in our lives by behaving according to commitments already formed
credibility
the reciever's assessment of the competence, trustworthiness, and dynaism of a speaker
deduction
reasoning that moves from the general to the specific
derived credibility
a measure of a speaker's credibility during a speech-making event
false division
the polorization of options, when, in fact, many options exist
induction
reasoning that moves from specific evidence to a general conclusion
initial credibility
a measure of how an audience perceives a speaker prior to the speech making event
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
a model that depicts motivation as a pyramid with the most basic needs at the base and the most sophisticated at the apex -- (physiological, security, belongingness, esteem, self-actualization)
Munroe's motivated sequence
a speech framework composed of five phases -- attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, and action
persuasive speech
a speech whose primary purpose is to change or reinforce the attitudes, beliefs, values, and/or behaviors of recievers
post hoc, ergo propter hoc
the identification of a false cause
proposition
a statement that summarizes the purpose of a persuasive speech
proposition of fact
a persuasive speech with the goal of setting what is or is not so
proposition of policy
a persuasive speech on what ought to be
proposition of value
a persuasive speech that epouses the worth of an idea, a person, or an object
reasoning from analogy
reasoning by comparison
red herring
a distraction used to lead the reciever to focus on an irrelevant issue
social proof
the determination of what is right by finding out what other people think is right
terminal credibility
a measure of a speaker's credibility at the end of the speech-making event.