52 terms

APES Chapter 2 Vocab

Caitlin Mudd

Terms in this set (...)

Anything that has mass and takes up space
A measure of the amount of matter in an object
The smallest particle that can contain the chemical properties of the element
A substance composed of atoms that can not be broken down into smaller, simpler components
Periodic Table
Lists all the currently known elements
Particles containing more than one atom
Molecules that contain more than one element
Atomic Number
The number of protons in the nucleus of a particular element
Mass Number
Total number of protons and neutrons in a element
Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
The period of time in which half of a radioactive substance decays
Covalent Bonds
A type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one pair of valence electrons
Ionic Bond
Weak bond formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
Hydrogen Bonds
Very weak bonds; occurs when a hydrogen atom in one molecule is attracted to the electrostatic atom in another molecule
Polar Molecule
A molecule in which the charges are unevenly distributed
Surface Tension
Results form the cohesion of water molecules at the surface of a body of water
Capillary Action
Adhesion of water molecules to a surface is stronger than cohesion between the molecules
A substance that contributes hydrogen ions to a solution
Substance that contributes hydroxide ions to a solution
Way to indicate a Acid or Base
Chemical Reaction
Occurs when atoms separate for the molecules they are a part of or recombine with other molecules
Law of Conservation of Matter
States that matter is neither created nor destroyed, only changed in form
Inorganic compounds
Compounds that either (a) do not contain carbon or (b) do contain carbon, but only carbon bounded to elements other than hydrogen
Organic Compound
Compounds that have carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonds
Compounds composed of carbon hydrogen and oxygen atoms
Made of long chains of nitrogen-containing organic molecules called amino acids
Nucleic Acids
Organic compounds found in all living cells
small biological molecules that do not mix with water (ex. fat, wax,and steroids)
The basic structural and functional unit of all organisms
The ability to do work or transfer heat
Electromagnetic Radiation
Radiation consisting of waves of energy associated with electric and magnetic fields resulting from the acceleration of an electric charge
Amount of energy used when 1-watt light bulb in turned on for 1 second
Rate at which work is done
Potential Energy
energy stored but has not yet been released
Kinetic Energy
The energy of motion
Chemical Energy
Potential energy stored in a chemical bond
Measure of kinetic energy in an object
First Law of Thermodynamics
Energy cannot be created or destroyed
Second Law of Thermodynamics
When energy is transformed, the quality of energy remains the same, but its ability to do work diminishes
Energy Efficiency
The percentage of energy put into a system that does useful work
Energy Quality
The ease with which and energy source can be used for work
All systems move toward randomness rather than toward order
Open System
exchanges of matter or energy occur across system boundaries
Closed System
Matter and energy exchanges across system boundaries do not occur
Additions given to a system
Losses from a system
System Analysis
Determining inputs, outputs, and changes in the system under various conditions
Steady State
Whether inputs equal outputs, so that the system is not changing over time
Adjustments in input or output rates caused by changes to a system
Negative Feedback Loops
A system responds to a change by returning to its original state, or at least by decreasing the rate at which the change is occurring
Positive Feedback Loops
self-amplifying change, normal way of producing rapid changes
Adaptive Management Plan
Strategy that provides flexibility to that managers can modify it as future changes occur