52 terms

APES Chapter 2 Vocab

Caitlin Mudd
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Matter
Anything that has mass and takes up space
Mass
A measure of the amount of matter in an object
Atom
The smallest particle that can contain the chemical properties of the element
Element
A substance composed of atoms that can not be broken down into smaller, simpler components
Periodic Table
Lists all the currently known elements
Molecules
Particles containing more than one atom
Compounds
Molecules that contain more than one element
Atomic Number
The number of protons in the nucleus of a particular element
Mass Number
Total number of protons and neutrons in a element
Isotopes
Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
Half-life
The period of time in which half of a radioactive substance decays
Covalent Bonds
A type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one pair of valence electrons
Ionic Bond
Weak bond formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
Hydrogen Bonds
Very weak bonds; occurs when a hydrogen atom in one molecule is attracted to the electrostatic atom in another molecule
Polar Molecule
A molecule in which the charges are unevenly distributed
Surface Tension
Results form the cohesion of water molecules at the surface of a body of water
Capillary Action
Adhesion of water molecules to a surface is stronger than cohesion between the molecules
Acid
A substance that contributes hydrogen ions to a solution
Base
Substance that contributes hydroxide ions to a solution
pH
Way to indicate a Acid or Base
Chemical Reaction
Occurs when atoms separate for the molecules they are a part of or recombine with other molecules
Law of Conservation of Matter
States that matter is neither created nor destroyed, only changed in form
Inorganic compounds
Compounds that either (a) do not contain carbon or (b) do contain carbon, but only carbon bounded to elements other than hydrogen
Organic Compound
Compounds that have carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonds
Carbohydrates
Compounds composed of carbon hydrogen and oxygen atoms
Proteins
Made of long chains of nitrogen-containing organic molecules called amino acids
Nucleic Acids
Organic compounds found in all living cells
Lipids
small biological molecules that do not mix with water (ex. fat, wax,and steroids)
Cell
The basic structural and functional unit of all organisms
Energy
The ability to do work or transfer heat
Electromagnetic Radiation
Radiation consisting of waves of energy associated with electric and magnetic fields resulting from the acceleration of an electric charge
Joule
Amount of energy used when 1-watt light bulb in turned on for 1 second
Power
Rate at which work is done
Potential Energy
energy stored but has not yet been released
Kinetic Energy
The energy of motion
Chemical Energy
Potential energy stored in a chemical bond
Temperature
Measure of kinetic energy in an object
First Law of Thermodynamics
Energy cannot be created or destroyed
Second Law of Thermodynamics
When energy is transformed, the quality of energy remains the same, but its ability to do work diminishes
Energy Efficiency
The percentage of energy put into a system that does useful work
Energy Quality
The ease with which and energy source can be used for work
Entropy
All systems move toward randomness rather than toward order
Open System
exchanges of matter or energy occur across system boundaries
Closed System
Matter and energy exchanges across system boundaries do not occur
Inputs
Additions given to a system
Outputs
Losses from a system
System Analysis
Determining inputs, outputs, and changes in the system under various conditions
Steady State
Whether inputs equal outputs, so that the system is not changing over time
Feedback
Adjustments in input or output rates caused by changes to a system
Negative Feedback Loops
A system responds to a change by returning to its original state, or at least by decreasing the rate at which the change is occurring
Positive Feedback Loops
self-amplifying change, normal way of producing rapid changes
Adaptive Management Plan
Strategy that provides flexibility to that managers can modify it as future changes occur
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