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175 terms

IDC A&P CH. 5&6

STUDY
PLAY
BLOOD AND LYMPHATIC VESSEL LININGS ARE CALLED?
ENDOTHELIUM
THE SURFACES OF THE PLEURA, PERICARDIUM AND PERITONEUM ARE CALLED?
MESOTHELIUM
THIS EPITHELIUM IS COMPOSED OF ONE LAYER OF CUBOIDAL CELLS RESTING ON A BASEMENT MEMBRANE?
SIMPLE CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM
THIS TYPE OF EPITHELIUM IS SEEN IN MANY TYPES OF GLANDS AND THEIR DUCTS? IT IS ALSO FOUNDS IN THE DUCTS AND TUBULES OF THE KIDNEY
SIMPLE CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM
THIS EPITHELIUM COMPOSES THE SURFACE OF THE MUCOUS MEMBRANE THAT LINES THE STOMCH, INTESTINE, UTERUS, UTERINE TUBES AND PART OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT?
SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM
THIS EPITHELIUM CONSISTS OF A SINGLE LAYER OF CELLS, MANY OF WHICH HAVE A MODIFIED STRUCTURE. THREE COMMON MODIFICATIONS ARE GOBLET CELLS, CILIA AND MICROVILLI
SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM
This epithelium is found lining the air passages of the respiratory system and certain segments of the male reproductive system such as the Urethra?
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
_______ are characterized by multiple layers of cells with typical flattened squamous cells at the free, or outer, surface of the epithelial sheet?
Stratified Squamous (Keratinized) Epithelium
The presence of _______ in Stratified Squamous (Keratinized) Epithelium cells contributes to the protective qualities of skin covering the bodies surface?
Keratin
_______ epithelium is found lining the vagina, mouth and esophagus. It's free surface is moust, and the outer epithelial cells, unlike those found in the skin, do not contain Keratin. Serves a protective function.
Stratified Squamous (Nonkeratinized) Epithelium
_______ epithelium can be located in the swear gland ducts, in the pharynx and over parts of the epiglottis
Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
Epithelium of this type are found in few places in the human body. It is located in segments of the male urethra and in the mucous layer near the anus.
Stratified Columnar Epithelium
_______ is a stratified tissue typically found in body areas that are subjucted to stress and tension changes, such as the wall of the urinary bladder. In many instances, 10 or more layers of cuboidal cells of varying shapes are present in the absence of stretching or tension
Stratified Transitional Epithelium
This epithelium has the ability to stretch allowing it to change from cuboidal to squamous in appearance.
Stratified Transitional Epithelium
This type of epithelium in specialized for secretory activity. These type of cells may function singly as unicellular glands, or they may function in clusters, solid cords, or specialized follicles as multicellular glands.
Glandular Epithelium
All glands in the body can be classified into either _______ or _______ glands?
Exocrine or Endocrine
_______ glands discharge their secreion products into ducts. An example would be the Salivary glands.
Exocrine
_______ are often called ductless glands because they discharge their secretion products (hormones) directly into blood or interstitial fluid. Examples would be the Pituitary, Thyroid and Adrenal glands
Endocrine
Two characteristic shapes of exocrine glands include?
Tubular and Alviolar (saclike)
_______ exocrine glands have only one duct leading to the surface
Simple
_______ exocrine glands have two or more ducts leading to the surface
Compound
What are the three types of exocrine glands that may be identified?
Apocrine, Holocrine and Merocrine.
_______ glands collect their secretory products near the apex, or tip, of the cell and then release them into a duct by pinching off the distended end. This process results in some loss of cytoplasm and damage to the cell
Apocrine
_______ glands produce oil to lubricate the skin - collect their secretory product inside the cell and rupture completely to release it. These cells literally self-destruct to complete their function
Holocrine
_______ glands dishcarge thier secretion product directly throught the cell or plasma membrane. Most secretory cells are of this type. The Salivary glands are examples of this type
Merocrine
_______ tissue is one of the most widespread and abundant tissues in the body and is found in or around nearly every organ of the body.
Connective
This tissue forms a supporting framework for the body as a whole and for its organs individually.
Connective
Connective tissue consists predominantly of _______.
Extracellular Matrix (ECM)
In addition to protein fibers, the matrix of connective tissues contain a number of _______ made up of polysaccharide chains often containing glucosamine and bound to a protein core
Proteoglycans
What are the four main classifications of connective tissue?
Fibrous, Bone, Cartilage and Blood.
Loose (areolar), Adipose, Reticular and Dense are what types of connective tissue?
Fibrous
Dense fibrous tissue can be broken down further into two types, what are they?
Regular and Irregular
Regular dense fibrous tissue can be further broken down into two classes, what are they?
Collagenous and Elastic
The connective tissue that makes up bone can be broken down into two types, what are they?
Compact and Cancellous (spongy)
Cartilage connective tissue can be broken down into three types, what are they?
Hyaline, Fibrocartilage and Elastic
_______ are usually present in the greatest numbers in areolar tissue and Macrophages are second
Fibroblasts
_______ cells, also found in areolar tissue, are capable of releasing a variety of molecules such as histamine, heparin, leukotrienes and prostaglandins.
Mast cells
Adipose tissue differs from loose, ordinary connective tissue mainly in that it contains predominantly what _______ also called Adipocytes.
Fat cells
_______ tissue forms supporting, protective pads around the kidneys and various other structures. It also constitutes a storage depot for excess food, and acts as an isulating material to conserve body heat.
Adipose
_______ tissue forms the framework of the spleen, lymph nodes and bone marrow.
Reticular
_______ tissue consists mainly of fibers packed densely in the matrix. It contains relatively few fibroblast cells.
Dense fibrous
_______ tissue forms the strong inner skin layer called the dermis. It also forms the outer capsule of such organs as the kidney and the spleen, as well as much of the fascia that surrounds muscles.
Dense (irregular) fibrous tissue
In _______ fibrous tissues, the bundles of fibers are arranged in regular, parallel rows.
Dense (regular)
This fibrous tissue is flexible but possesses great tensile strength when pulled from either or both ends. These characteristics are desirable in structures that anchor muscle to bone, such as tendons.
Collagenous dense (regular) fibrous tissue
The type of elastic fibers in this type of tissue are in a parallel arrangement. In the walls of arteries, this arrangement permist the walls to be pushed out by blood pressure without breaking.
Elastic dense (regular) fibrous tissue
Injured tissues release a number of chemicals that affect blood vessels. These chemicals include _______, _______, and a group of chemically related compounds called _______.
Histamine, Serotonin and Kinins
The process of engulfing and destroying bacteria is?
Phagocytosis
The term _______ is a general name for the fibrous connective tissue masses that can be seen by the unaided eye in many locations throughout the body.
Fascia
_______ or osseous tissue, is one of the most highly specialized forms of connective tissue
Bone
The mature cells on bone, _______, are embedded in a unique matrix material containing both collagen fibers and mineral salt crystals
Osteocytes
The type of bone tissue that forms the hard shell of a bone in called _______?
Compact bone tissue
Osteocytes, or bone cells, are located in small spaces, or _______, which are arranged in concentric layers of bone matix called _______.
Lacunae & Lamellae
Mature Osteocytes are actually trapped in hard bone matrix. At one time they were active, bone-forming cells called _______.
Osteoblasts
_______ tissue differs from other connective tissues in that only one cell type, the chondrocyte, is present.
Cartilage
_______ tissue is the most prevalent type of cartilage and is found in the support rings of the respiratory tubes and covering the ends of bones that articulate at joints
Hyaline
_______ is the strongest and most durable type of cartilage. Examples are found in the knee joint.
Fibrocartilage
_______ is perhaps the most unusual connective tissue because it exists in a liquid state and contains neither ground substance nor fibers
Blood
Three types of muscle tissue are present in the body. _______, _______ and _______.
Skeletal, Smooth and Cardiac
_______ muscle tissue, also sometime called visceral muscle tissue, is found in the walls of the viscera (hollow internal organs e.g. the stomach, intestines and blood vessels).
Smooth
Another name for skeletal lmuscle is _______ _______ muscle.
Striated voluntary
Another name for cardiac lmuscle is _______ _______ muscle.
Striated involuntary
_______ tissue has much more developed excitability and conductivity characteristics than any other type of tissue does.
Nervous
The organs of the nervous system are the _______, _______ and the _______.
Brain, spinal cord and nerves.
Actual nerve tissue is ectodermal in origin and consists of two basic kinds of cells: _______ and _______.
Neurons and neuroglia.
All neurons are characterized by a cell body called the soma and, generally, at lest two processes: one _______, which transmits nerve impulses away from the cell body, and one or more _______, which carry nerve signals toward the axon.
Axon and Dendrites
Tissues usually repeair themselves by allowing phagocytic cells to remove dead or injured cells and then filling in the gaps that are left. This growth of functional new tissue is called _______.
Regeneration
An atypical and unusually thick scar that may develop in the lower layer of the skin is called a _______.
Keloid.
The term _______ refers to a thin, sheetlike structure that may have many important functions in the body.
Membrane
Two major categories, or types, of body membranes exist. _______ and _______
epithelial and connective tissue
There are three types of epithelial tissue membranes in the body: _______, _______ and _______.
Cutaneous, Serous and Mucous.
The _______ membrane, or skin, is the primary organ of the integumentary system
Cutaneous
The skin composes approximately what percentage of body weight?
16%
_______ membrane lines cavities that are not open to the external environment and covers many of the organs inside thse caities.
Serous
The _______ is the membrane that covers the lungs and lines the thoracic cavity
Pleural
The _______ covers the abdominal viscera and lines the abdominal cavity.
Peritoneum
_______ membranes are epithelial membranes that line body surfaces opening directly to the exterior.
Mucous
The lining of the respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts are examples of what kind of membranes?
Mucous
The fibrous connective tissue underlying the epithelium in mucous membranes is called the _______.
Lamina propria
The _______ membranes lining the spaces between bones and joints that move are what?
Synovial
Synovial membranes are smooth and slick and secrete a think and colorless lubricating fluid called.
Synovial fluid
The term Neoplasm literally means "new matter" and refers to any abnormal growth of cells, also called _______.
Tumors
Malignant tumors are also know as what?
Cancers
Skin area in an average-sized adult is roughly how big?
17-20 square feet.
Integument is another name for the _______
Skin
The skin is a thin, relatively flat organ classified as a membrane called the _______ membrane
Cutaneous
The two primary layers of the skin are the _______ and _______.
Eperdermis and Dermis
The deeper dermis is derived from the _______
Mesoderm
The dermis is a relatively dense and vascular connective tissue layer that may average more that ___ mm in thickness is some body areas.
Four (4)
The specialized are where the cells of the epidermis meet the connextive tissue cells of the dermis is called the _______.
Dermal-epidermal junction
Beneath the dermis lies a loose _______ rich in fat and areolar tissue
Hypodermis
Most of the body surface is covered by skin that is classified as _______.
Thin skin
The hairless skin covering the palms of the hands (and fingertips), soles of the feet, and other body areas subject to friction is classified as _______.
Thick skin
In thick skin the underlying dermal papillae are raised in curving parallel _______ to form fingerprints and foorprints that are visible on the overlying epidermis
Friction ridges
Keratinocytes become filled with a tough, fibrous protein called _______.
Keratin
Keratinocytes make up more than ____ % of the epidermal cells and form the principal structural element of the outer skin
90%
_______ contribure color to the skin and serve to decrease the amount of ultraviolet (UV) light that can penetrate into the deeper layers of the skin.
Melanocytes
Although they may compose more than 5% of the _______ cells, melanocytes may be completely absent from the skin in certain nonlethal conditions
Epidermal
_______ cells are dendritic cells (DCs), branched cells that play a role in immunity.
Langerhans
As a type of antigen-presenting cell (APC), each Langerhans cells finds markers (antigens) on _______ and other invaders and presents them to other immune system cells for destruction.
Bacteria
The cells of the epidermis are found in up to five distinct layers, or _______.
Strata
The (base layer) of the strata is known as what?
Stratum Basale
The (spiny layer) of the strata is known as what?
Stratum Spinosum
The (granularlayer) of the strata is known as what?
Stratum Granulosum
The (clear layer) of the strata is known as what?
Stratum Lucidum
The (horny layer) of the strata is known as what?
Stratum corneum
What are the layers of the strata from the deepest to the most superficial?
Stratum basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum and corneum
Only the cells in the _______ layer of the strata undergo mitosis.
Stratum Basale
This layer of the epidermis is formed from 8 to 10 layers of irregularly shaped cells with very prominent intercellular bridges, or desmosomes.
Stratum Spinosum
Cells in the _______ ipidermal layer are rich in RNA and are therefore well equipped to initiate the protein sythesis required for the production of kerain
Stratum Spinosum
The term stratum _______ is often used to describe the stratum basale and the stratum spinosum together
Germinativum
The process of surface keratin formation begins in the stratum _______ of the epidermis
Granulosum
In the stratum ________ typically, neclei are absent, and the cell outlines are now indistinct. These dying cells are filled with a substance called Eleiden, which will eventually be transformed to keratin.
Lucidum
current research suggests that the regeneration time required for completion of mitosis, differentiation, and movement of new keratinocytes from the stratum basale to the surface of the epidermis is about ___ days.
35
Normally about ___ to ___ % of all cells in the stratum basale enter mitosis each day
10 - 12%
Numerous skin diseases are characterized by an abnormally high rate of _______.
Keratinization
The _______ or corium, is sometimes called the "true skin". It is composed of a thin papillary and a thicker reticular layer.
Dermis
A specialized network of nerves and nerve endings in the dermis called _______ also process sensory information such as pain, pressure, touch, and temperature.
Somatic sensory receptors
The this superficial layer of the dermis forms bumps, called _______, that project into the epidermis.
Dermal Papillae
The _______ serves as a point of attachment for numerous skeletal (voluntary) and smooth (involuntary) muscle fibers
Dermis
Each hair follicle has a small bundle of involuntary muscles attached to it. These are the _______ muscles. Contraction of these muscles makes the hair "stand on end"
Arrector Pili
Lander's lines are another name for what?
Cleavage lines
The _______ is simetimes called the subcutaneous layer, or superficial fascia.
Hypodermis
The _______ is mostly loose fibrous and adipose tissue.
Hypodermis
Human skin ranges widely in color. The main determinant of skin color is the quantity of _______ deposited in the cells of the epidermis.
Melanin
Two groups of melanin are made by the melanocytes of the body, they are called what?
Eumelanin and Pheomelanin
If the enzyme tyrosinase is absent from birth because of a congenital defect, the melanocytes cannot form melanin, and a condition called _______ results.
Albinism
Eumelanin absorbs more _______ radiation than Pheomelanin does
UV
Melanin production can also be stimulated by excess secretion of what?
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
In addition to melanin, other pigments such as the yellow pigment _______ found in many vegetables and roots (for example, carrots) also contribute to skin color
Beta-carotene
The shedding of epithelial elements from the skin surface is called _______.
desquamation
The widespread placement of the millions of different _______ receptors found in the skin enables it to function as a sophisticated sense organ covering the entire body surface
Smoatic sensory
For movement of the body to occur without injury, the skin must be what?
Supple and elastic
The first step in the production of vitamin D in the body occurs when the skin is exposed to what?
Ultraviolet light
In general, any chemical substance produced in one body area and then transported in the blood to another location where it has its effect is called a _______.
Hormone
_______ cells function with helper T cells to trigger helpful immune reactions in certain diseases
Langerhans
In most people, body temperature moves up and down very little in the course of a day. It hovers close to a set point of about ____ degrees.
37 deg cel.
Heat for the body is produced by one means - _______ of foods
Metabolism
One mechanism the body uses to maintain relative constancy of internal temperature is to regulate the amount of _______.
Heat loss
Some ____ % or more of the transfer of heat occurs though the skin; the remainder takes place in the mucous membranes.
80%
If heat must be conserved to maintain a constant body temperature, dermal blood vessels _______ to keep most of the warm blood circulating deeper in the body
Constrict (vasoconstriction)
If heat loss must be increased to maintain a constant body temperature, dermal blood vessels _______ to increase the skin's supply of warm blood from deeper tissues.
Widen (vasodilation)
Heat energy must be _______ to evaporate any fluid.
Expended
_______ is the transfer of heat from the surface of one object to that of another without actual contact between the two. This is the principle of heating and cooling systems
Radiation
_______ means the transfer of heat to any substance actually in contact with the body. This process accounts for a relatively small amount of heat loss
Conduction
_______ is the transfer of heat away from a surface by movement of heated air or fluid particles.
Convection
Like most homeostatic mechanisms, heat loss by the skin is controlled by a _______.
Negative feedback loop.
Appendages of the skin consist of ______, _______ and _______.
Hair, nails and skin glands
Many months before birth, tiny tubular pockets called _______ begin to develop in most parts of the skin
Hair follicles
By about the sixth month of pregnancy the developing fetus is all but covered by an extremely fine and soft hair coat, called _______.
Lanugo
Soon after birth, any lanugo hair that remains is lost and then replaced by _______ hair, which is stronger, fine, and usually less pigmented.
Vellus
Hair growth begins when cells of the epidermis spread down in the dermis to form a small tube, the _______.
Follicle
The stratum germinativum develops into the follicle's innermost layer and at the bottom of the follicle forms a cap-shaped cluster of cells know as the _______.
Germinal matrix
Protuding into the germinal matrix is a small mound of the dermis, called the _______
Hair papilla.
Part of the hair, namely, the root, lies hidden in the follicle. The visible part of a hair is called the _______.
Shaft
The inner core of a hair is know as the _______.
medulla.
The more superficial portion around the hair is called the _______.
Cortex
The covering layer of a hair is called the _______.
cuticle
Deposited in the cells of the hair are varying amounts of _______ the pigments responsible for hair color.
Melanins
Two or more small _______ glands secrete _______, an oily substance, into each hair follicle.
Sebaceous, Sebum
The visible part of each nail is called the _______.
Nail body
The nail body nearest the root has a crescent-shaped white area known as the _______, or "little moon"
Lunula
Under the nail lies a layer of epithelium called the _______.
Nail bed
_______ or sudoriferous glands are the most numerous of the skin glands
Sweat
Sweat or sudoriferous glands can be classified into two groups - _______ and _______ - based on the type of secretion, location, and nervous system connections.
Eccrine and Apocrine
_______ sweat glands are by far the most numerous, important, and widespread sweat glands in the body.
Eccrine
_______ sweat glands are a simple, coiled, tubular type of gland. They function throughout life to produce a transparent watery liquid (perspiration or sweat) rich in salts, ammonia, uric acid, urea, and other wastes
Eccrine
_______ glands secrete oil for the hair and skin
Sebacceous
The oil, or _______, keeps the hair supple and the skin soft and pliant.
Sebum
_______ glands are a special variety or modification of apocrine sweat glands.
Ceruminous
The mixed secretions of sebacsous and ceruminous glands form a brown waxy substance called _______.
Cerumen
Any disorder of the skin can be called a _______, which mean "skin condition".
Dermatosis
_______ is the general name for many different mycoses (fungal infections) of the skin
Tinea
_______ is the most common type of skin cancer
Basal cell carcinoma
Like basal cell carcinoma, this skin cancer is slow growing and arises in the epidermis.
Squamous cell carcinoma
_______ is the most deadly of all skin cancers.
Malignant melanoma