Biology Chapter 2

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Capillary ActionTendency of water to rise in a thin tube due to adhesion and cohesion.CarbohydrateMacromolecule made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; major source of energy for the human body.Carboxyl GroupCOOH group, found in organic acids.CellulosePolysaccharide consisting of glucose monomers that reinforces plant-cell walls, made of long straight chains woven togetherChitinA structural polysaccharide, consisting of amino sugar monomers, found in many fungal cell walls and in the exoskeletons of all arthropods, made of long straight chains woven togetherCholesterolA lipid that forms an component of animal cell membranes and is an important molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids.CohesionAttraction between molecules of the same substanceCovalent BondA chemical bond formed when two atoms share electrons.Cytosine (C)a pyrimidine nitrogenous base in DNA and RNA that pairs with guaninedehydration synthesischemical reaction for linking monomers in organic polymers (OH- removed from one monomer; H+ removed from the other monomer).DenaturationWhen an enzyme loses its ability to catalyze a reaction due to the loss of its 3D shape so the substrate no longer fits properly in the active site. Happens at temperatures that are too hot.DeoxyriboseA five-carbon sugar that is a component of DNA nucleotides C5H10O4DisaccharideA double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.Disulfide BridgeThe covalent bond between two cysteine amino acidsDNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes. Double stranded, possible bases are A,T,C,GDouble Stranded/Double HelixStructure of DNAEnzymeA protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing by changing shape.enzyme-substrate complexA temporary complex formed when an enzyme binds to its substrate molecule(s).Examples of monosaccharidesglucose, fructose, galactoseexamples of disaccharidessucrose, lactose, maltoseExamples of polysaccharidesstarch, glycogen, cellulose, chitinFatty Acidhydrocarbon chain often bonded to glycerol in a lipidFunctional GroupA specific configuration of atoms commonly attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and involved in chemical reactions.Functions of Lipidslong-term energy storage, insulation, part of the cell membrane, chemical messenger, waterproofingFructosemonosaccharide, fruit sugarGalactosemonosaccharide, milk sugarGlucosea monosaccharide sugar that has several formsGlycerolA three-carbon alcohol to which fatty acids are covalently bonded to make fats and oils. Lipid Monomer, C3H8O3Glycogena polysaccharide found in animals for long term energy storage. Splits into glucose with hydrolysis, more branched.Guanine (G)A purine nitrogenous base found in DNA and RNA that pairs with cytosineHormoneChemical messengers, lipidsHormone ShapeMultiple hexagons and a pentagonHydrogen BondOccurs when hydrogen is covalently bonded to F,O,N and causes partial charges due to differences in electronegativityHydrogenationThe process of converting unsaturated fats to trans fats by adding hydrogenHydrolysisA chemical process that splits a molecule by adding water.HydrophilicAttracted to waterHydrophobicHaving an aversion to waterHydroxyl groupOH, A functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom joined to an oxygen atom by a polar covalent bond. Molecules possessing this group are soluble in water and are called alcohols.IsomerCompounds with the same formula but different structures.LactoseDimer, disaccharide, glucose + galactoseLipidmacromolecule made mostly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxesLysosomea membrane-bound cell organelle that contains digestive enzymes.Maltosea disaccharide composed of two glucose monosaccharides, sometimes known as malt sugarMonomerA simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymersMonosaccharidesSingle sugar molecules (glucose, fructose, galactose)Monounsaturated Fatty AcidA lipid whose molecular structure includes only one double carbon bond.Nitrogenous BaseA molecule found in DNA and RNA that encodes genetic information in cells.Nucleic Acidmacromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus,Nucleotidemonomer of nucleic acid polymers, made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous basePeptide BondThe chemical bond that forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acidPhospholipidglycerol + 2 fatty acids + 1 phosphate group; makes up membrane bilayers of cellsPhospholipid Bilayera two-layered arrangement of phosphate and lipid molecules that form a cell membrane, the hydrophobic lipid ends facing inward and the hydrophilic phosphate ends facing outward.Phosphate GroupPO4, functional group consisting of a phosphorus atom bonded to four oxygen atoms; important in energy transfer.Polar Covalent BondA covalent bond between atoms that differ in electronegativity. The shared electrons are pulled closer to the more electronegative atom, causing partial charges.PolymerA long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together.PolypeptideA polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.PolysaccharideA carbohydrate polymer of many monosaccharides (sugars) linked by dehydration reactions.Polyunsaturated Fatty Acida lipid with two or more points of unsaturationPrimary StructureThe first level of protein structure; the specific sequence of amino acids making up a polypeptide chain.Proteinmacromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair, made up of amino acidsPurine Basedouble ring structure for nitrogenous bases, adenine and guaninePyrimidine BaseSingle-ring structure for nitrogenous bases, include cytosine, thymine, and uracil.quarternary structureFourth level of protein structure, more than one chain of amino acids, held together by R-Group interactionsR Groupused to represent one of 20 possible side chains found in amino acids of living systemsRiboseA five-carbon sugar present in RNA, C5H10O5RibosomeCytoplasmic organelles at which proteins are synthesized.RNA (ribonucleic acid)Translates the code stored in the DNA and allows for the synthesis of proteins, single stranded, possible bases are A,U,C,GSaturated Fatty AcidA lipid in which all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds, and has the maximum number of hydrogens that can be attached to the carbon skeletonSecondary StructureSecond level of protein structure, one of two forms held together by hydrogen bonds: alpha helix or beta pleated sheetSingle Stranded/Single Helixstructure of RNAStarchA storage polysaccharide in plants consisting entirely of glucose, made of long chains with few branches.SubstrateThe reactant on which an enzyme works.Sucrosea disaccharide composed of glucose and fructosetertiary structureThird level of protein structure, a globular form held together by R-group interactionsThymine (T)a pyrimidine base in only DNA that pairs with adenineTrans-FatAn unsaturated fat containing one or more trans double bonds. Man made molecule and has a longer shelf life but can cause issues with human health.TriglycerideA lipid made of three fatty acid molecules and one glycerol moleculeUracil (U)a pyrimidine base found in RNAUniversal SolventDissolves into anything (Water).