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Combo with "Media & Interest Groups" and 1 other
Terms in this set (46)
An organization of people sharing common objectives who actively attempt to influence government policy makers through direct and indirect methods. Voluntary organizations that share a common belief and want to influence the government.
Functions of Interest groups
1. Represent constituents
2. Provide a means of participation
3. Educate the public
4. Influence policy makers
Types of Interest groups
Economic interest groups, Professional Associations, Educator Interest groups, Public interest groups, Single issue interest groups, Multi-issue interest groups
Economic interest groups
Include trade associations, such as Mid-Continent Oil and Gas Association and Good Roads Association, labor unions, and professional associations such as the Texas Farm Bureau.
Represent people generally well-paid and highly educated ones in a specific profession who generally hold a professional license by state (Texas Medical Association, Texas Trial lawyers Association)
Educator Interest groups
Groups such as the Texas State Teachers Association and the Texas Community College Teachers Association
Public interest groups
Groups that form in the pursuit of a collective good which will materially benefit membership of the whole groups, such as NAACP, NRA, AARP, LULAC, NOW (National Organization for Women
Single issue interest groups
Focus primarily or exclusively on one issue: abortion, environment, peace
Multi issue interest groups
Have a broader range of issues grouped around a central theme, such as the Christian Coalition, they attempt to promote anti-abortion campaigns, abstinence based sex education, home schooling, prayer in schools, school book selection.
Right to work
Legislation stipulating that a person cannot be denied employment because of membership or non-membership in a labor union or other labor organization
Free rider problem
Difficulty that exits when individuals can enjoy the outcome of an interest group without having to contribute, such as becoming a member of the group.
A strategy by which organized interests seek to influence the passage of legislation by exerting direct pressure on members of the legislature. Openly appealing to a member in the legislature, originally by catching members in the lobby of the capital, funding for reelection is often an incentive offered.
Influencing decision makers indirectly, by influencing the public
Negotiations between an employer and a group of employees to determine employment conditions, such as those related to wages, working hours, and safety.
Various activities in which interest groups engage to try to influence the outcome of elections
TV, radio, newspapers, magazines, Television, radio, newspapers, magazines, the Internet, and other means of popular communication.
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers.
A term used to describe the discrepancy between people who have access to and the resources to use new information and communication tools, such as the internet, and people who do not have the resources and access to the technology.
Functions of the Media
Entertainment, socialization, investigative reporting, soft news, hard news.
Journalism exposing economic, social, and political evils. Journalists began publishing investigations of business abuses, dangerous working conditions, and the miseries of slum life that aroused indignant public demands for reform.
US Constitution, Article 1
Establishes the legislative branch of the federal government, the United States Congress.
17 powers specifically stated: collect taxes, provide for common defense, declare war, coin money, establish post office, and regulate commerce.
Powers which have not been explicitly granted by the Constitution but are implied by the "necessary and proper clause" to be delegated for the purpose of carrying out the enumerated powers.
House of Representatives - Terms
435 members (apportionment based on state population), serve a 2 year term. Must be at least 25 years of age, a citizen of U.S for 7 years prior to election and a legal resident of state from which elected.
100 members (2 from each state), serve 6-year terms. Must be at least 30 years old and a citizen for 9 years, a legal resident of state to be elected.
Article I, section I established a two chamber legislative branch - the House of Representatives, based on population of the states and the Senate, 2 per state.
Special provision that staggers senatorial terms so that 1/3rd of the senate comes up for election every 2 years. No more than 34 senators are up for election in a given year. Makes it dramatically more difficult to change the composition of the senate
Process of redrawing legislative district boundaries within a state to reflect population changes
Drawing legislative district boundaries in such a way as to gain political advantages. The majority party in the state legislatures will often draw new district lines that give candidates in their party a better chance of victory
A veto exercised by the president after Congress has adjourned; if the president takes no action for ten days, the bill does not become law and is not returned to Congress for a possible override.
Permanent structures that perform the detailed work. Members become policy experts in specialized areas. Each committee acquires a staff of experts who help legislators make informed decisions. Committees act like minilegislators.
Speaker of the house
Presiding officer in the House of Representatives who is the leader of the majority party in the house. Power of referral, assigns bills to committees, recognizing or ignoring members who wish to speak, votes in the event of a tie, interprets outcome of vote, schedules bills for action.
Vice president's role
Votes in tie-breakers in the senate. The amount of power given to him depends on how much president wants him to have. Next in line for presidency in the event something happens to the president. Balances the ticket politically.
To block legislation votes or confirmation votes, senate minorities may resort to unlimited debate in which one senator or a group of senators keeps talking without interruption.
A procedure for terminating debate, especially filibusters, in the Senate. 16 senators sign a petition requesting it and after 2 days have elapsed, 3/5ths of the chamber (60 senators) vote to end discussion. Afterwards, each senator may speak only for an hour before a vote is taken.
How Impeachment Works
Impeachment (check on presidential power) for "treason, bribery, or other high crimes or misdemeanors."
The House of Representatives conducts thorough investigation to determine if the president has engaged in any of the above activities. If yes, the House is empowered to vote to impeach the president by a simple majority vote.
The Senate then acts as a court of law and tries the president for the charged offenses, which are called Articles of Impeachment. The Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court presided over these proceedings. A two-thirds majority vote in the Senate on any count contained in the articles of impeachment is necessary to remove the president from office. 2 presidents were impeached by the House of Representatives—Andrew Johnson and Bill Clinton. Neither was removed from office by the Senate.
Bills that deal with money must originate in the House of Representatives.
An arrangement in which two or more members of Congress agree in advance to support each others bills
How a bill becomes law
1. Introduced—idea and language of a bill can originate from many sources—interests groups often have a hand in exact wording
2. Referred to a committee (subcommittee)—referral to certain committee can cause turf wars because the topic of legislation can fall within the jurisdiction or policy area of several committees.
3. House and senate approval--Floor action (debate) rules committee for house of reps. Length of time bill will be debated and types of amendments that can be accepted. Floor consideration—every member of the chamber has an opportunity to express his or her support of lack of
4. Conference committee reconciliation—identical versions must be approved for bill to pass
5. Presidential Action -- Signed, vetoed (2/3rds vote in both houses can override veto), wait 10 days—becomes law without signature, unless congress has adjourned—pocket veto.
The authority to reject any congressional legislation by the President.
Process by which seats in the house of reps are reassigned among the states to reflect population changes following the census
Made up of members of both the house and the senate that irons out the differences in similar measures that have passed both houses to create a single bill. If they cannot arrive at one version of the bill, the measure fails.
Specialized groups within the standing committees. For example, the Standing Committee would be Agriculture, the Subcommittee would be "horticulture and organic" agriculture.
Deals with a particular issue or a problem. This is a temporary committee so they disappear with when the problem is resolved or when the congressional session is over. Primarily play an investigative role.
The work of these committees generally involves investigation , research, and oversight of agencies closely related to congress. Members are selected from each chamber.
Pork barrel spending
Legislation that specifically benefits one state or district. Expenditures fund local projects that are not critically important from a national perspective.
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