32 terms

Islam Final

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patronage
gifts, political support, and social prestige conferred by a superior, often a ruler
periodization
the division of history into distinct eras based on significant events
sultan
an arabic title for a muslim ruler who, legitimately or not, wields authority
vizier
the prime minister of the caliphs or sultans
Christendom
the region ruled by western european christians
crusader
a european soldier who traveled as an armed pilgrim to fight enemies of christendom
crusader states
a series of principalities set up in the middle east by crusaders
ijaza
a license by a scholar to his student for a certain text to be taught
madrasa
an institution for teaching islamic religious knowledge
patron
a powerful person who supports a less powerful person financially or socially
sharh
a commentary upon a text other than the quran, to clarify difficult passages
waqf
an inalienable endowment, often to support religious institutions
dhikr
a sufi ritual reciting a remembrance of god
khanqah, zawiya, ribat
a sufi house where members of a particualr order live together
mendicants
people who live by begging
sama'
a sufi ritual involving listening to music, often with dancing
shaykh
an arabic term for old man, used to refer to a popular religious leader
silsila
a chain of people, for the chain of who learned what from whom in the sufi order
bey
a turkic leader
beylik
the territory ruled by a bey
khan
a mongol ruler
qadi
an islamic judge applying the sharia to particular courses
zij
an aastronoical manual detailing movements of stars
bida
innovation, ulama term for practices which deviate from standaard
orthodoxy
correctness of belief
orthopraxy
correctness of action
popular religion
widespread religious practices, many of which are disapproved by religious leaders
chronicle
a historical text which recounts events in order with dates
devshirme
an occasional round up of christian boys for janissaries
emir
an arabic title for a military commander
emirate
a state ruled by an emir
janissaries
an elite ottoman fighting force of converted slave boys of christian origin