47 terms

AP Bio Chapter 51 Vocab

Action carried out by muscles or glands under control of the nervous system in response to a stimulus.
Scientific study if how animals behave, particularly in their natural environments.
Proximate Causation
"How" a behavior occurs or is modified; 1. What stimulus elicits the behavior, and what physiological mechanisms mediate the response? 2. How does the animal's experience during growth and development influence the response?
Ultimate Causation
"Why" a behavior occurs in the context of natural selection. 1. How does the behavior aid survival and reproduction? 2. What is the behavior's evolutionary history?
Behavioral Ecology
Study if the ecological and evolutionary basis for animal behavior.
Fixed Action Pattern
Sequence of unlearned acts that is essentially unchangeable and, once initiated, usually carried to completion. Ex: Male stickleback fish attacking other males with red bellies that invade their territory.
Sign Stimulus
An external cue or trigger. Ex: The color red to male stickleback fish.
Change in activity or turning rate in response to a stimulus. Ex: Sow bugs are more active in dry conditions so it is likely that they will end up in a moist area where motility is lessened.
Oriented movement toward(positive) or away from(negative) some stimulus. Ex: Fish swimming upstream to avoid getting swept away and to catch prey more easily.
A regular, long-distance change in location.
A stimulus transmitted from one animal to another.
The transmission and reception of signals.
Emitted chemical substances that give off in order; usually relate to mating but not always.
Innate Behavior
Behavior that is internally fixed and all individuals of a population exhibit it.
The modification of behavior based on specific experiences.
Type of learning where there is a loss of responsiveness to stimuli that convey little or no new information; "cry-wolf" effect.
Combination of learned and innate components where the formation of long-lasting behavioral response to a particular individual or object is developed.
Sensitive Period
Limited developmental phase when certain behaviors can be learned; also known as the critical period.
Spatial Learning
Establishment of a memory that reflects the structure of an environment.
Location indicators; used to aid spatial learning.
Cognitive Map
A representation in the nervous system of the spatial relationships between objects in the animal's surroundings. Ex: Clark's nutcracker hiding pine seeds and knowing distances between landmarks.
Associative Learning
The ability to relate one environmental feature with another. Ex:Birds eating a bad-tasting bug then avoiding bugs of that color associating the color with the bad taste.
Classical Conditioning
When an arbitrary stimulus becomes associated with a particular outcome. Ex: Pavlov's dog.
Operant Conditioning
When an animal learns to associate one of it own behavior with a reward or punishment and then tends to repeat or avoid that behavior. Ex: A wolf avoiding porcupines as a prey after getting stuck with needles.
Process of knowing represented by awareness, reasoning, recollection, and judgment. The most complex form of learning.
Problem Solving
The cognitive activity of devising a method to proceed from one state to another in the face of real or apparent obstacles.
Cross-Fostering Study
When the young of one species are placed in the care of adults from another species.
Twin Study
Where researchers compare the behavior of identical twins raised apart with those raised in thee same household.
Food-obtaining behavior.
Optimal Foraging Model
Natural selection should favor a foraging behavior that minimizes the costs of of foraging and maximizes the benefits.
Type of mating with no strong pair-bonds.
Mates of on male and one female that remain together for a longer period of time.
An individual of one sex mating with several of the other.
A single male with many female mates.
A single female with many male mates.
Agnostic Behavior
Ritualized contest that determines which competitor gains access to a resource, such as food or mates.
Game Theory
A model that evaluates alternative strategies in situations where the outcome depends on the strategies of all the individuals involved.
When animals behave in ways that reduce their individual fitness but increase the fitness of other individuals in the population.
Inclusive Fitness
Hamilton's idea that the total effect an individual has on proliferating its genes by producing its own offspring and by providing aid that enables other close relatives, who share many of those genes, to produce offspring.
The benefit to the recipient; symbolized B.
Cost to the altruist; C
Coefficient of Relatedness
The fraction of genes that on average are shared; r.
Hamilton's Rule
Natural selection favors altruism when: rB > C
Kin Selection
Natural selection that favors altruistic behavior by enhancing reproductive success of relatives.
Reciprocal Altruism
When an individual aids another expecting the favor to be returned in the future.
Social Learning
Learning through observing; forms the roots of culture.
System of information transfer through social learning or teaching that influences the behavior of individuals in a population.