20 terms

AP World History Chapter 1 Bernet

Physical evolution of species and their migrations throughout the globe as well as the revolutionary transformation from all humans surviving by hunting-gathering to the majority living in agriculturals socities. The result of this include:nprecedented population explosion due to the increase in the food supply Permanent settlement in villages and, later, in cities The specialization of labor, which led to the development of craft industries and other professions The opportunity to accumulate we…
prehistory refers to the period....
before the invention of writing. The Paleolithic period occurred before the invention of writing and enabled human communities to record and store information.
human beings and large apes are significantly different in...
level of intelligence. Although humans and large apes share similarities in external features, genetic make-up, body chemistry and brain structure.
The famous "Lucy" was
an Australopithecus. Lucy was a southern ape and a homonid,a genus seperate from Homo, the genus that contains modern humans.
The family of homonids contains all of the following except for
apes and monkeys. Apes and monkeys are not homonids.
A major difference between Homo erectus and an Australopithecus was the ability to
communicate through language. Spoken language allowed this species to communicate complex ideas and cordinate their efforts into common interest.
Homo sapiens were better hunters than Australopithecus and Homo erectus because they
had larger brains and higher intillegence. Homo sapiens used superior intelligence, sophisticated tools, and language to exploit the natural world more efficiently than any other species.
The most significant defining characteristic of the Paleolithic era was that
people relied on hunting and gathering for substance. They forged for their food by hunting wild animals and edible plants. Mostly men hunted animals. Women gathered food.
What is the significance of the Natufian, Jomon, and Chinook cultures?
They showed that some Paleolithic cultures settled permently, lived in much larger groups, had specialized labor, and hierchies of authority.
Neanderthal people developed a capacity for emotion and feeling, which can be seen from their
elaborate burials. Neanderthals wrapped their dead in shrouds, laid them on flower beds, and then covered their bodies in garlands. They were also buried with flint tools and animal bones.
Cro-Magons people were
homo sapiens sapiens. They were members of our own sub-species.
The prominent sexual figures of Venus figurines at Cro-Magon sites indicate that the Cro-Magon peoples
were strongly connected with fertility and the generation of new life. The exaggerated sexual features of the figurines are thought to represent an interest in fertility.
What a likely purpose of Cro-Magon cave painting?
to exercise sympathetic magic. They wished to gain control of their game animals during the hunting expeditions.
The term neolithic era refers to
the early stages of a cultivating society, the agriculture transition, the era in which people began to used polished stone tools, and the era in which people began to live permanently in villages.
By around 5,000 BCE agriculture had replaced hunting gathering societies in several regions all around the world, primarily because
cultivation provided a relativity more stable and regular supply of food. Neolithic peoples ensured themselves a more regular food supply by encouraging the growth of edible crops.
The following changes were brought about by agriculture
population growth, the emergence of towns and villages, the specilization of labor, and the emergence of classes. but no writing.
The site of Jericho is one of the earliest known
villages. Jericho is a neolithic village.
Three neolithic industries that illustrate the greatest potential of specialized labor include
Pottery, metallurgy, and textiles were all industries that showed an ability of specialized labor in neolithic villages.
Cata Huyuk is an archaeological site in Anatolia from Neolithic times in which one can readily see evidence of
specialized labor. This site in Turkey grew into a bustling town of perhaps 8,000 inhabitants who manufactured pots, baskets, textiles, leather, stone and metal tools, wood carvings, carpets, beads, and jewelry.
The belief that Neolithic religious thought clearly reflected the natural world of early agricultural society is based on observation of
representations of gods and goddesses. Their figurines represented deities connected with the cycle of life, death, and regeneration.
Cities first emerged from agricultural villages and towns in
the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers(Mesopotamia).