131 terms

APUSH: Chapters 1-5

Chapters 1-5 Includes: Key Terms People to Know

Terms in this set (...)

Canadian Shield
First part of the North American landmass to emerge above sea level. (4) (Chapter 1)
Highly advanced South American civilization that occupied present-day Peru until they were
conquered by Spanish forces under Francisco Pizarro in 1532. The Incas developed sophisticated
agricultural techniques, such as terrace farming, in order to sustain large, complex societies in
the unforgiving Andes Mountains. (8) (Chapter 1)
Form of political society that combines centralized government with a high degree of ethnic and cultural unity."Concentrations of population".
Cahokia (c. 1100 A.D.)
Mississippian settlement near present-day East St. Louis, home to as many as 25,000 Native
Americans. (10) (Chapter 1)
Native American empire that controlled present-day Mexico until 1521, when they were
conquered by Spanish Hernán Cortés. The Aztecs maintained control over their vast empire
through a system of trade and tribute, and came to be known for their advances in mathematics
and writing, and their use of human sacrifices in religious ceremonies. (8) (Chapter 1)
three-sister farming
Agricultural system employed by North American Indians as early as 1000 A.D.; maize, beans
and squash were grown together to maximize yields. (10) (Chapter 1)
In trading systems, those dealers who operate between the original producers of goods and the
retail merchants who sell to consumers. After the eleventh century, European exploration was
driven in large part by a desire to acquire alluring Asian goods without paying heavy tolls to
Muslim middlemen. (11) (Chapter 1)
Small regular vessel with a high deck and three triangular sails. Caravels could sail more closely
into the wind, allowing European sailors to explore the Western shores of Africa, previously made inaccessible due to prevailing winds on the homeward journey. (11) (Chapter 1)
Large-scale agricultural enterprise growing commercial crops and usually employing coerced or slave labor. European settlers established plantations in Africa, South America, the Caribbean and the American South. (13) (Chapter 1)
Columbian Exchange
The transfer of goods, crops and diseases between New and Old World societies after 1492. (15) (Chapter 1)
Tordesillas, Treaty of (1494)
Signed by Spain and Portugal, dividing the territories of the New World. Spain received the bulk of territory in the Americas, compensating Portugal with titles to lands in Africa and Asia. (17) (Chapter 1)
Sixteenth-century Spaniards who fanned out across the Americas, from Colorado to Argentina,
eventually conquering the Aztec and Incan empires. (17) (Chapter 1)
Economic system characterized by private property, generally free trade, and open and accessible markets. European colonization of the Americas, and in particular, the discovery of vast bullion deposits, helped bring about Europe's transition to capitalism. (17) (Chapter 1)
Spanish government's policy to "commend," or give, Indians to certain colonists in return for the
promise to Christianize them. Part of a broader Spanish effort to subdue Indian tribes in the
West Indies and on the North American mainland. (18) (Chapter 1)
noche triste (June 30, 1520)
"Sad night", when the Aztecs attacked Hernán Cortés and his forces in the Aztec capital,
Tenochitlán, killing hundreds. Cortés laid siege to the city the following year, precipitating the
fall of the Aztec Empire and inaugurating three centuries of Spanish rule. (22) (Chapter 1)
People of mixed Indian and European heritage, notably in Mexico. (22) (Chapter 1)
Acoma, Battle of (1599)
Fought between Spaniards under Don Juan de Oñate and the Pueblo Indians in present-day New
Mexico. Spaniards brutally crushed the Pueblo peoples and established the territory as New
Mexico in 1609. (23) (Chapter 1)
Popé's Rebellion (1680)
Pueblo Indian rebellion which drove Spanish settlers from New Mexico. (23) (Chapter 1)
Black Legend
False notion that Spanish conquerors did little but butcher the Indians and steal their gold in the
name of Christ. (24) (Chapter 1)
Fernandid of Aragon
Sovereign. Married to Isabelle of Castile which resulted as one of two factors in the Unity Of Spain.
Isabelle of Castile
Sovereign. Married to Fernandid of Aragon (result same as his).
Christopher Columbus
(1451-1506) Italian seafarer. On Oct. 12, 1492 he discovered the New World.
Francisco Pizarro
"Crushed Incans in Peru in 1532 and added a huge hoard of booty to spanish cofers"
Francisco Coronado
In a quest to find the "Golden Cities" he wandered through Arizona, New Mexico, all the way to Kansas. He also discovered the grand canyon of colorado river and enormous herds of bison.
Bartolome de las Casas
(1484-1566) Spanish historian, social reformer and Dominican friar. First resident, Bishop of Chipas. "Protecter of Indians".
Hernan Cortez
Set sail in 1529 from Cuba. Leaned spanish and was baptized to the name "Dona Marina". Destroyed Aztecs.
Malinche (Dona Marina)
Name given to Hernan Cortez.
The Aztec chief. he treated Cortez hospitably at first but then led a failed attack in 1520.
Giovanni Caboto (John Cabot)
Sent by english to explore northeastern coast of North America in 1497 and 1498.
Robert de la Salle
Was sent on an expedition down the Mississippi in the 1680's
Father Junipero Serra
Led Spanish Missionaries in 1769 that founded the first of a chain of 21 missions that went up the California coast line.
Protestant Reformation (16th Century)
Movement to reform the Catholic Church launched in Germany by Martin Luther. Reformers
questioned the authority of the Pope, sought to eliminate the selling of indulgences, and
encouraged the translation of the bible from Latin, which few at the time could read. The
reformation was launched in England in the 1530s when King Henry VIII broke with the Roman
Catholic Church. (27) (Chapter 2)
Roanoke Island (1585)
Sir Walter Raleigh's failed colonial settlement off the coast of North Carolina. (28) (Chapter 2)
Spanish Armada (1588)
Spanish fleet defeated in the English Channel in 1588. The defeat of the Armada marked the
beginning of the decline of the Spanish Empire. (29) (Chapter 2)
Legal principle that the oldest son inherits all family property or land. Landowner's younger sons, forced to seek their fortunes elsewhere, pioneered early exploration and settlement of the
Americas. (30) (Chapter 2)
Joint-stock company
Short-term partnership between multiple investors to fund a commercial enterprise; such
arrangements were used to fund England's early colonial ventures. (30) (Chapter 2)
Legal document granted by a government to some group or agency to implement a stated
purpose, and spelling out the attending rights and obligations. British colonial charters
guaranteed inhabitants all the rights of Englishmen, which helped solidify colonists' ties to Britain during the early years of settlement. (30) (Chapter 2)
Jamestown (1607)
First permanent English settlement in North America founded by the Virginia Company. (30)
(Chapter 2)
First Anglo-Powhatan War (1614)
Series of clashes between the Powhatan Confederacy and English settlers in Virginia. English
colonists torched and pillaged Indian villages, applying tactics used in England's campaigns
against the Irish. (32) (Chapter 2)
Second Anglo-Powhatan War (1644-1646)
Last-ditch effort by the Indians to dislodge Virginia settlements. The resulting peace treaty
formally separated white and Indian areas of settlement. (33) (Chapter 2)
Act of Toleration (1649)
Passed in Maryland, it guaranteed toleration to all Christians but decreed the death penalty for
those, like Jews and atheists, who denied the divinity of Jesus Christ. Ensured that Maryland
would continue to attract a high proportion of Catholic migrants throughout the colonial period.
(36) (Chapter 2)
Barbados slave code (1661)
First formal statute governing the treatment of slaves, which provided for harsh punishments
against offending slaves but lacked penalties for the mistreatment of slaves by masters. Similar
statutes were adopted by Southern plantation societies on the North American mainland in the
17th and 18th centuries. (37) (Chapter 2)
Frontier farmers who illegally occupied land owned by others or not yet officially opened for
settlement. Many of North Carolina's early settlers were squatters, who contributed to the
colony's reputation as being more independent-minded and "democratic" than its neighbors. (40)
(Chapter 2)
Tuscarora War (1711-1713)
Began with an Indian attack on Newbern, North Carolina. After the Tuscaroras were defeated,
remaining Indian survivors migrated northward, eventually joining the Iroquois Confederacy as
its sixth nation. (40) (Chapter 2)
Yamasee Indians
Defeated by the south Carolinans in the war of 1715-1716. The Yamasee defeat devastated the
last of the coastal Indian tribes in the Southern colonies. (40) (Chapter 2)
In politics, a territory between two antagonistic powers, intended to minimize the possibility of
conflict between them. In British North America, Georgia was established as a buffer colony
between British and Spanish territory. (41) (Chapter 2)
Iroquois Confederacy (late 1500s)
Bound together five tribes-the Mohawks, the Oneidas, the Onondagas, the Cayugas, and the
Senecas-in the Mohawk Valley of what is now New York State. (42) (Chapter 2)
Henry VIII
(1509-1547) Broke out with Roman Catholic church in the 1500's launching Protestant Reformation.
Elizabeth I
Ascended English throne in 1558, causing protestantism to become dominant in England and the rivalry with Catholic Spain Intensified.
Sir Francis Drake
"Sea Dog". Traveled around the world coming back in 1580 with Spanish riches, was knighted by Elizabeth I.
Sir Walter Raleigh
(1552-1618) Organized expedition that first landed in N. Carolinas coast in 1585. One of Queen Elizabeth's favorite courtiers who was eventually beheaded for treason.
James I
King of England. Sent a charter to the Virginia Company of London for a settlement in the New World. Had a river/town named after him (James River/Jamestown).
Captain John Smith
Took over in 1608 in Jamestown. Young adventurer who had a run in with Indians making him experienced.
Indian Chief man who captured John Smith on 1607.
Daughter of Chief Powhatan who saved John Smith from a mock execution. She was the go between who created peace between the settlers and Indians. (1595-1617) Married John Rolfe
Lord de La Warr
The "New governor" who lead the relief party for colonists. Ordered settlers back to Jamestown, imposed harsh military regime, and took aggressive military action against indians. Arrived in 1610.
John Ralfe
Was married to Pocahantas signifying the first interracial union. Was killed in a series of indian attacks. Became father of the tobacco industry.
Lord Baltimore
Founded Maryland in 1634. Was an English Catholic, permitted free worship and a refuge for persecuted Roman Catholics.
Oliver Cromwell
Led the army to overthrow King Charles I and was successful in 1646. Ruled England in an almost democratic style until his death. His uprising drew attention away from Jamestown and other American Colonies.
James Oglethorpe
Founder of Georgia in 1733, soldier, statesman, philanthropist, started Georgia as a haven for people in debt because of his interest in prison reform.
Native American Leader and founder of Iroquois Confederacy.
Dominant theological credo of the New England Puritans based on the teachings of John Calvin.
Calvinists believed in predestination-that only "the elect" were destined for salvation. (46)
(Chapter 3)
Calvinist doctrine that God has foreordained some people to be saved and some to be damned. Though their fate was irreversible, Calvinists, particularly those who believed they were destined for salvation, sought to lead sanctified lives in order to demonstrate to others that they were in
fact members of the "elect". (47) (Chapter 3)
Intense religious experience that confirmed an individual's place among the "elect", or the
"visible saints". Calvinists who experienced conversion were then expected to lead sanctified lives
to demonstrate their salvation. (47) (Chapter 3)
English Protestant reformers who sought to purify the Church of England of Catholic rituals and creeds. Some of the most devout Puritans believed that only "visible saints" should be admitted to church membership. (47) (Chapter 3)
Small group of Puritans who sought to break away entirely from the Church of England; after
initially settling in Holland, a number of English Separatists made their way to Plymouth Bay,
Massachusetts in 1620. (47) (Chapter 3)
Mayflower Compact (1620)
Agreement to form a majoritarian government in Plymouth, signed aboard the Mayflower.
Created a foundation for self-government in the colony. (47) (Chapter 3)
Massachusetts Bay Colony (founded in 1630)
Established by non-separating Puritans, it soon grew to be the largest and most influential of the
New England colonies. (49) (Chapter 3)
Great Migration (1630-1642)
Migration of seventy thousand refugees from England to the North American colonies, primarily
New England and the Caribbean. The twenty thousand migrants who came to Massachusetts
largely shared a common sense of purpose-to establish a model Christian settlement in the new
world. (49) (Chapter 3)
Belief that the elect need not obey the law of either God or man; most notably espoused in the
colonies by Anne Hutchinson. (51) (Chapter 3)
Fundamental Orders (1639)
Drafted by settlers in the Connecticut River Valley, document was the first "modern constitution" establishing a democratically-controlled government. Key features of the document were borrowed for Connecticut's colonial charter and later, its state constitution. (52) (Chapter 3)
Pequot War (1636-1638)
Series of clashes between English settlers and Pequot Indians in the Connecticut River valley.
Ended in the slaughter of the Pequots by the Puritans and their Narragansett Indian allies. (54)
(Chapter 3)
King Philip's War (1675-1676)
Series of assaults by Metacom, King Philip, on English settlements in New England. The attacks
slowed the westward migration of New England settlers for several decades. (54) (Chapter 3)
English Civil War (1642-1651)
Armed conflict between royalists and parliamentarians, resulting in the victory of pro-Parliament forces and the execution of Charles I. (54) (Chapter 3)
Dominion of New England (1686-1689)
Administrative union created by royal authority, incorporating all of New England, New York, and
East and West Jersey. Placed under the rule of Sir Edmund Andros who curbed popular
assemblies, taxed residents without their consent and strictly enforced Navigation Laws. Its
collapse after the Glorious Revolution in England demonstrated colonial opposition to strict royal
control. (55) (Chapter 3)
Navigation Laws
Series of laws passed, beginning in 1651, to regulate colonial shipping; the acts provided that
only English ships would be allowed to trade in English and colonial ports, and that all goods
destined for the colonies would first pass through England. (55) (Chapter 3)
Glorious (or Bloodless) Revolution (1688)
Relatively peaceful overthrow of the unpopular Catholic monarch, James II, replacing him with
Dutch-born William III and Mary, daughter of James II. William and Mary accepted increased
Parliamentary oversight and new limits on monarchical authority. (55) (Chapter 3)
salutary neglect (1688-1763)
Unofficial policy of relaxed royal control over colonial trade and only weak enforcement of
Navigation Laws. Lasted from the Glorious Revolution to the end of the French and Indian War in
1763. (56) (Chapter 3)
Vast tracts of land along the Hudson River in New Netherlands granted to wealthy promoters in
exchange for bringing fifty settlers to the property. (58) (Chapter 3)
blue laws
Also known as sumptuary laws, they are designed to restrict personal behavior in accord with a
strict code of morality. Blue laws were passed across the colonies, particularly in Puritan New
England and Quaker Pennsylvania. (62) (Chapter 3)
Martin Luther
German friar who started the Protestant Reformation. Nailed his doctrines to the door of Wittenberg's Cathedral in 1517, declared bible alone was source of gods word.
John Calvin
Founded calvinism, which reformed Catholicism. Wrote about it in "Institutes of a Christian Religion" in 1536. Believes god is all knowing and everyone was predestined for heaven or hell.
William Bradford
Pilgrim that lived in a north colony called Plymouth Rock in 1620. he was chosen governor 30 times. He also conducted experiments of living in the wilderness and wrote about them, well known for "of Plymouth Plantation".
John Withrop
Immigrated from the Mass Bay Colony in the 1630's to become the first governor and to elad a religious experiment. Said "We shall be a city on a hill"
Anne Hutchingson
A religious dessenter whose ideas procvoked an intense religious and political crisis in the massechusetts bay Colony between 1636 and 1638. Challenged principles of Massechusetts religious and political system. Her ideas became known as the heresy of antinomianism, a belief that christians are not bound by moral law. Latter expelled, then went and settled at Pocasset (1591-1643)
Roger Williams
Banished from massechusetts Bay Company for challenging Puritan Ideas. He later established Rhode island and helped it to foster REligious toleration.
Wampanog cheiftain who signed a treaty with Plymouth pilgrims in 1621 and helped them to celebrate the first thanksgiving.
Metacom (King Phillip)
Massasoits Son. Forged Pan-Indian alliance and mounted a series of assaults on English settlements. Was eventually beheaded.
Charles II
Restored to the English throne in 1660. Was determined to take an "active, aggressive hand in the management of colonies" Gave Connecticut a sea to sea charter grant in 1662.
Sir Edmund Andros
Head of Dominion od New England in 1686, militaristic, disliked by colonists because of his affiliation with the Church of England. Changed many colonial laws/traditions without consent of representatives, tried to flee america after glorious Revolution. Was caught and shipped to England.
William III
Dutch born. Married to Mary, enthroned as protestant leader of the Netherlands.
Mary II
Daughter of James II. Married to William III, enthroned as protestant leader.
Henry Hudson
Discovered the Hudson River. Sailed for the Dutch even though he was orginally from England. Was looking for a Northwest passage through the Americas.
Peter Stuyvesant
Dutch general. Led a small military expedition in 1664. he was known as "Father Woodleg" lost the New Netherlands to the English. Was the governor of the New Netherlands.
Duke of York
Brother of Charles II. New York was named in his honor. "Strong English Squadron".
William Penn
English Quaker. "Holy Experiment"; persecuted because he was a quaker; 1681 he got a grant to go over to the New World; area was Pennsylvania; "First American advertising man" Freedom of worship there.
indentured servants
Migrants who, in exchange for transatlantic passage, bound themselves to a colonial employer for a term of service, typically between four and seven years. Their migration addressed the chronic labor shortage in the colonies and facilitated settlement. (69) (Chapter 4)
headright system
Employed in the Tobacco colonies to encourage the importation of indentured servants, the
system allowed an individual to acquire fifty acres of land if he paid for a laborer's passage to
the colony. (70) (Chapter 4)
Bacon's Rebellion (1676)
Uprising of Virginia backcountry farmers and indentured servants led by planter Nathaniel Bacon; initially a response to Governor William Berkeley's refusal to protect backcountry settlers from Indian attacks, the rebellion eventually grew into a broader conflict between impoverished settlers and the planter elite. (74) (Chapter 4)
Royal African Company
English joint stock company that enjoyed a state-granted monopoly on the colonial slave trade from 1672 until 1698. The supply of slaves to the North American colonies rose sharply once the company lost its monopoly privileges. (74) (Chapter 4)
middle passage
Transatlantic voyage slaves endured between Africa and the colonies. Mortality rates were
notoriously high. (74) (Chapter 4)
New York slave revolt (1712)
Uprising of approximately two dozen slaves that resulted in the deaths of nine whites and the
brutal execution of twenty-one participating blacks. (76) (Chapter 4)
South Carolina slave revolt (Stono River) (1739)
Uprising, also known as the Stono Rebellion, of more than fifty South Carolina blacks along the
Stono River. The slaves attempted to reach Spanish Florida but were stopped by the South
Carolina militia. (76) (Chapter 4)
Congregational Church
Self-governing Puritan congregations without the hierarchical establishment of the Anglican
Church. (82) (Chapter 4)
Often-fiery sermons lamenting the waning piety of parishioners first delivered in New England in
the mid-seventeenth century; named after the doom-saying Old Testament prophet Jeremiah.
(83) (Chapter 4)
Half-Way Covenant (1662)
Agreement allowing unconverted offspring of church members to baptize their children. It
signified a waning of religious zeal among second and third generation Puritans. (83) (Chapter 4)
Salem witch trials (1692-1693)
Series of witchcraft trials launched after a group of adolescent girls in Salem, Massachusetts
claimed to have been bewitched by certain older women of the town. Twenty individuals were
put to death before the trials were put to an end by the Governor of Massachusetts. (84)
(Chapter 4)
Leisler's Rebellion (1689-1691)
Armed conflict between aspiring merchants led by Jacob Leisler and the ruling elite of New York.
One of many uprisings that erupted across the colonies when wealthy colonists attempted to
recreate European social structures in the New World. (86) (Chapter 4)
William Berkley
British colonial gov. of Virginia from 1642-1652. Showed that he had favorites in his second which led to Bacon's rebellion in 1676, which he ruthlessly suppressed. He had poor frontier defense.
Nathanial Bacon
Led the breakout of 1,00 virginians in 1676. Chased Berkley out of town, causing chaos. Died of disease. (1647-1676).
Anthony Johnson
African-American landowner in Virginia. Was at first an indentured servant. (1620) Tobacco farmer. Died in 1670.
Paxton Boys (1764)
Armed march on Philadelphia by Scotts-Irish frontiersmen in protest against the Quaker
establishment's lenient policies toward Native Americans. (90) (Chapter 5)
Regulator movement (1768-1771)
Eventually violent uprising of backcountry settlers in North Carolina against unfair taxation and the control of colonial affairs by the seaboard elite. (90) (Chapter 5)
triangular trade
Exchange of rum, slaves and molasses between the North American Colonies, Africa and the
West Indies. A small but immensely profitable subset of the Atlantic trade. (94) (Chapter 5)
Molasses Act (1737)
Tax on imported Molasses passed by Parliament in an effort to squelch the North American trade
with the French West Indies. It proved largely ineffective due to widespread smuggling. (96)
(Chapter 5)
Belief that salvation is offered to all humans but is conditional on acceptance of God's grace.
Different from Calvinism, which emphasizes predestination and unconditional election. (98)
(Chapter 5)
Great Awakening (1730s and 1740s)
Religious revival that swept the colonies. Participating ministers, most notably Jonathan Edwards and George Whitfield, placed an emphasis on direct, emotive spirituality. A Second Great
Awakening arose in the nineteenth century. (98) (Chapter 5)
old lights
Orthodox clergymen who rejected the emotionalism of the Great Awakening in favor of a more rational spirituality. (100) (Chapter 5)
new lights
Ministers who took part in the revivalist, emotive religious tradition pioneered by George
Whitefield during the Great Awakening. (100) (Chapter 5)
Poor Richard's Almanack (1732-1758)
Widely read annual pamphlet edited by Benjamin Franklin. Best known for its proverbs and
aphorisms emphasizing thrift, industry, morality and common sense. (102) (Chapter 5)
Zenger trial (1734-1735)
New York libel case against John Peter Zenger. Established the principle that truthful statements
about public officials could not be prosecuted as libel. (103) (Chapter 5)
royal colonies
Colonies where governors were appointed directly by the King. Though often competent
administrators, the governors frequently ran into trouble with colonial legislatures, which
resented the imposition of control from across the Atlantic. (104) (Chapter 5)
proprietary colonies
Colonies-Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Delaware-under the control of local proprietors, who
appointed colonial governors. (104) (Chapter 5)
Michael-Guillaume de Crevecour (1735-1813)
French settler on America in the 1770's; posed the question of what "American" is after seeing people in america like he's never seen before. American really became a mixture of many nationalities.
Jacobus Arminius
Has Arminianism named after him Preached that an individuals free will not divine decree determined a persons eternal fate and that all humans could be saved if they freely accepted God's grace.
Jonathan Edwards
American theologian and Congregational clergymen, whose sermons stirred the religious revival, called the Great Awakening. known for his "sinners in the hands of an angry God" sermon. (1703-1758)
George Whitefield
(1738) Preacher who had been an alehouse attendant. Everyone in the colonies liked to hear him preach of love and forgiveness because he had a different style of preaching. This led to new missionary work in the Americas converting Indians and Africans to Christianity, as well as lessening the importance of the old clergy.
John Trumboll
(1756-1843) Painter. Was forced to go to london to pursue his ambitions because his father said "Connecticut is not athens". Had very European ideas.
John Singleton Cooply
(1738-1815) Famous Revolutionary Era painter, had to travel to England to finish his study of the art. Only in the Old World could Cooply find subjects with leisure time required to be pained and the money needed to pay him for it. American citizen but was loyal to england during the Revolution.
Phillis Wheatly
(1758-1784) slave girl who became a poet. At 8 she was brought to Boston. No formal education, but she published a poetry book at 20 in england.
John Peter Zenger
Newspaper Printer. "Zenger Trial" Charged with seditious libel. Protested back saying it was just truthful statements. freedom of press formed.