APES Chapter 2 Vocabulary House
Terms in this set (55)
Anything that occupies space and has mass.
The amount of matter it contains.
Smallest particle that can contain the chemical properties of an element.
A substance composed of atoms that cannot be broken down into smaller, simpler components.
Lists all of the elements currently known.
Particles containing more than one atom.
Molecules that contain more than one element.
The number of protons in the nucleus of a particular element.
The total number of protons and nuetrons in an element.
Various kinds of atoms.
Spontaneous release of material from the nucleus.
The time it takes for one half of the original radioactive parent atoms to decay.
Elements that do not readily gain or lose electrons from compounds by sharing electrons.
The bond is formed by the share of electrons.
A weak chemical bond that forms when hydrogen atoms that are covalently bonded to one atom are attracted to another atom on another molecule.
One side is more positive and the other is more negative.
Happens when adhesion of molecules to a surface is stronger than cohesion between the moelcules.
A substance that contributes hydrogen ions to a solution.
A substance that contributes hydroxide ions to a solution.
A scale that is a way to indicate the strength of acids and bases.
Occurs when atoms seperate from the molecules they are a part of or recombine with other molecules.
Law of Conservation of Matter
States that matter cannot be created or destroyed.
Compounds that either do not contain the element carbon or do not contain carbon but only carbon bound to elements other than hydrogen.
Compounds that have carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonds.
Compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms.
Made up of long chains nitrogen-containing organic molecules called amino acids.
Organic compounds found in living cells.
Genetic material organisms pass onto their offsprings that contains the code of reproducing the components of the next generation.
Translates the codes stored in DNA and allows for the synthesis of proteins.
Smaller biological molecules that do not mix with water.
A highly organized living entity that consists of the 4 types of the macromolecules and other substances in a watery solution surrounded by a membrane.
The ability to do work or transfer heat.
A form of energy that includes but is not limited to visible light, ultraviolet light and infrared energy which we percieve as heat.
Massless packets of energy that travel at the speed of light and can move even through the vacuum of space.
The basic unit of energy in the metric system.
The rate at which work is done.
Energy that is stored but has not been released.
Energy of motion.
Potential energy stored in chemical bonds.
Measure of the average kinetic energy of a substance.
First Law of Thermodynamics
Just as matter can neither be created nor destroyed, energy is neither created or destroyed.
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Energy is transformed, the quantity of energy remains the same, but its ability to do work deminishes.
The ratio of the amount of work that is done to the total amount of energy that is introduced into the system in the first place.
The ease with which an energy source can be used for work.
Always increasing in a system unless new energy from outside the system is added to create order.
Exchanges of matter or energy occur across sytem boundaries.
Matter and energy exchanges across system boundaries do not occur.
Addtions to a given system.
Losses from the system.
How they determine inputs, outputs and changes in the system under various conditions.
Whether inputs = outputs, so that the system is not changing over time.
Results of a process feedback into the system to change the rate of that process.
Negative Feedback Loops
A system responds to a change by returning to its original state or at least by decreasing the rate at which the change is occuring.
Positive Feedback Loop
Adaptive Management Plan
A strategy that provides flexibility so that managers can modify it as future changes occur.