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40 terms

HemOnc Peripheal Blood Morphology

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RBC normal size
size of a lymphocyte nucleus
Anisocytosis
RBC which vary widely in size
microcytosis
RBCs that are small. can use lymphocyte nucleus for comparison
3 causes of microcytosis
(1) iron deficiency (2) thalassemia (3) sideroblastic anemia
macrocytosis
large RBCs
6 causes of macrocytosis
(1)high reticulocyte num (2) B12/ folate def (3)liver disease (4)thyroid disease (5)chemo (6)AZT
hypochromasia
RBC that have too little hemoglobin. area of central paller greater than 1/3 total diameter
how to measure hypochromasia
MCH
Polychromasia
RBC that have more of a bluish tinge. are larger and prob reticulocytes
Polikilocytosis
RBC vary widely in shape
Target cells
look like bulls-eyes
4 causes of Target cells
(1) liver diease (2) thalassemias (3) hemoglobin c (4) after splenectomy
Spherocytes
RBCs lose central pallor
2 causes of Spherocytes
(1) hereditary spherocytosis (2) autoimmune hemolysis
Schistocytes
RBC fragments with sharp edges
cause of schistocytes
Microangiopathic Hemolytic Anemia
Echinocytes (burr cells)
have small regular projections
cause of echinocytes
renal disease
acanthocytes (spur cells)
have larger irregular projections
cause of acanthocytes
liver diease
Teardrop cells
seen in myelophthisic processes (marrow infiltration diseases)
4 causes of teardrop cells
(1) Myelofibrosis (2)tumor mtastic to marrow (3)granulomatous diease (4) leukemia and lymphomas
Howell-Jolly Bodies
some round purple inclusions in RBCs. are nuclear remnants
Cause of Howell-Jolly Bodies
seen after splenectomy or in spenic hypofunction
Rouleaux
linear arrangments of RBCs
causes of Rouleaux
high Ig (1) multiple myeloma (2) Waldenstrom's mcroglobulinemia (3) hypoalbuminemia
agglutination
occurs when RBCs are coated with IgM
Iron Deficiency Anemia presentation
hypochromic, microcytic cells. high platelet numbers
Betha Thalassemia major presentation
(1) target cells (2) howell-jolly body (3) Nucleated red cell (4) schistocyte (5) basophilic stippling
Megaloblastic anemia presentation
macrocytic RBCs. Hypersegmented neutrophils
cause of hypersegmented neutrophils
Megaloblastic anemia
Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (AIHA)
polychromasia microspherocytes
Components of CBC
hemoglobin, hematocrit, WBC, RBC, platelets, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW
MCV
average size of RBC. Indicates microcytosis (SIT) or macrocytosis (MAC BELT)
MCH
amound of hemoglobin in RBC. can indicate Hypochromasia
MCHC
hemoglobin concentration
RDW
RBC distribution width. indicates Anisocytosis
normal MCV value
80-100
normal reticulocyte level
5-10%
microshperocytes
due to autoimmune hemolysis