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77 terms

Honors Physiology 2011- Chapter 1

For those of us working on Mr. Terry's honors phys! Gotta love that class! :)
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Anatomy
The study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts and their relationships to one another.

Gross anatomy-study of large, easily observable structures.
Microscopic anatomy-study of body structures only seen by a microscope.
Physiology
The study of how the body and its parts work or function.
Levels of Organization
1. Protons, neutrons, and electrons gather to form...
2. Atoms form...
3. Molecules form...
4. Organelles form...
5. Vitalism forms...
6. Cellular Level form...
7. Tissue Level form...
8. Organ level form...
9. Organ system Level form...
10. Organism!
"Maintaining Boundaries"
Every cell of the human body is surrounded by an external membrane that contains its contents and allows needed substances in while generally preventing entry of potentially damaging or unnecessary substances. (Integumentary system= skin)
Responsiveness
Or irritability, is the ability to sense changes (stimuli) in the environment and then react to them.
Metabolism
Refers to all chemical reactions that occur within body cells (regulated chiefly by hormones secreted by the glands of the endocrine system).
Digestion
The process of breaking down ingested food into simple molecules that can be absorbed into the blood.
Excretion
The process of removing excreta, or wastes, from the body.
Reproduction
The production of offspring, can occur on the cellular or organismal level (regulated by the hormones of the endocrine system).
Growth
An increase in size, usually accomplished by an increase in the number of cells.
Survival Needs
Nutrients (food)
Oxygen (20% of the air we breathe)
Water (60-80% of our body weight)
Appropriate temperature (37 C, or 98 F)
Appropriate atmospheric pressure.
Homeostasis
The body's ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world is continuously changing. (Indicates dynamic state of equilibrium, or a balance in which internal conditions change and vary but always withing narrow limits).
Homeostatic Control
1. Stimulus produces change in variable
2. Receptor: sensor that monitors and responds to changes in the environment0 responds by sending information (input) to the control center on the AFFERENT pathway.
3. Control Center-determines the level (set point) at which a variable is to be maintained, analyzes the info it receives and then determines the appropriate response or course of action. The output is sent along the EFFERENT pathway to the effector. This provides the means for the control center's response to the stimulus.
Negative Feedback Mechanisms
Systems in which the net effect of the response to the stimulus is to shut off the original stimulus or reduce its intensity. (Example: Body Temperature; see page 13).
Positive Feedback Mechanisms
Rare; they tend to increase the original disturbance (stimuli) and push the variable farther from its original value. (Example: Blood clotting or birth; see page 13).
Anatomical Position
Body is erect with the feet parallel and the arms hanging at the sides with the palms facing forward.
Superior
Toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; above
Inferior
away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below
Ventral
Toward or at the front of the body; in front of
Dorsal
Toward or at the backside of the body; behind
Medial
Toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of
Lateral
Away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of
Proximal
Close to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk.
Distal
Farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk.
Superficial
Toward or at the body surface.
Deep
Away from the body surface.
Abdominal
anterior body trunk inferior to ribs
Acromial
point of shoulder
Antebrachial
forearm
Antecubital
Anterior surface of elbow
Axillary
armpit
Brachial
arm
buccal
cheek area
carpal
wrist
cervical
neck region
coxal
hip
crural
leg
deltoid
curve of shoulder formed by large deltoid muscle
digital
fingers, toes
femoral
thigh
fibular
lateral part of leg
frontal
forehead
inguinal
area where thigh meets body trunk; groin
nasal
nose area
patellar
anterior knee
pelvic
area overlying the pelvis anteriorly
pubic
genital region
sternal
breastbone area
tarsal
ankle region
thoracic
chest
umbilical
navel
calcaneal
heel of foot
cephalic
head
femoral
thigh
gluteal
buttock
lumbar
area of back between ribs and hips
occipital
posterior surface of head
olecranal
posterior surface of elbow
popliteal
posterior knee area
sacral
area between hips
scapular
shoulder blade region
sural
the posterior surface of lower leg; the calf
vertebral
area of spine
plantar
sole of the foot (inferior body surface).
Section
cut
Plane
imaginary line where a section is made through the body wall or organ.
Sagittal Section
A cut along the lengthwise, or longitudinal, plane of the body, dividing the body into right and left parts. (If down the median plane of the body and right and left parts are equal in size, it is called a median, or midsagittal section.
Frontal Section
A cut along a lengthwise plane that divides the body (or organ) into anterior and posterior parts. (AKA coronal section)
Transverse Section
A cut along a horizontal plane, dividing the body or organ into superior and inferior parts. (AKA cross section).
Dorsal Body Cavity
Has two subdivisions, which are continuous with each other: Cranial Cavity- space inside the boy skull
Spinal Cavity- extends from the cranial cavity nearly to the end of the vertebral column. (Spinal cord, continuation of brain, is protected by the vertebrae, which surround the spinal cavity).
Ventral Body Cavity
Contains structures within chest and abdomen (visceral organs). It's subdivided into 3 parts:
Thoracic cavity- separated from the rest of the ventral cavity by the diaphragm. Organs= lungs and heart) protected by ribs.
Abdominal Cavity-contains stomach, liver, intestines, and other organs
pelvic Cavity- contains reproductive organs, bladder, and rectum. (There is no actual physical structure dividing the abdominopelvic cavity (abdominal + Pelvic cavities).
Mediastinum
Central region in the thoracic cavity that separates the lungs into right and left cavities; it houses the heart, trachea, and other visceral organs.
9 Abdominopelvic Quadrants
Right Hypochondriac Epigastric Left hypochondriac

Right Lumbar Umbilical Left lumbar

Right Iliac Hypogastric Left Iliac
Oral Oral and Digestive Cavities
Oral cavity (mouth) contains teeth and tongue. Continuous with the cavity of the digestive organs, which opens to the exterior at the anus.
Nasal Cavity
Located within and posterior to the nose, the nasal cavity is part of the respitory system passageways.
Orbital Cavities
(Orbits) in the skull house the eyes and present them in an anterior position.
Middle Ear Cavities
The middle ear cavities carved into the skull lie just medial to the eardrums. These cavities contain tiny bones that transmit sound vibrations to the hearing receptors in the inner ears.