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Explain the stages of cultural identity and how these might affect education.

Stages of Cultural Identity (6)

1. Cultural Psychological Captivity
2. Cultural Encapsulation
3. Cultural Identity Clarification
4. Biculturalism
5. Multiculturalism and Reflective Nationalism
6. Globalism and Global Competency

Cultural Psychological Captivity

This is when individuals internalize the negative stereotypes and beliefs about their cultural groups.

Cultural Encapsulation

This is when individuals believe that their ethnic group is superior to others.

Cultural Identity Clarification

Here, individuals are able to clarify their personal attitudes and cultural identity and to develop clarified positive attitudes toward their cultural group.


This is when an individual has a healthy sense of cultural identity and the psychological characteristics to participate successfully in their own cultural community as well as in another.

Multiculturalism and Reflective Nationalism


Globalism and Global Competency

Having an open mind while actively seeking to understand cultural norms and expectations of others. They have the knowledge, skills, and attitude needed to function effectively within their own cultural communities, within other cultures within their nation-state, in the civic culture of their nation, and in the global community.

How those stages affect education

With the rapid changes in culture, class, and linguistic diversities in our classrooms, it is important for teachers to reach the globalism and global competency stage. It benefits our CLDE students when teachers are culturally competent - teachers that embraces all cultures and includes those cultures into lessons. At this stage, cultural pride is genuine rather than contrived.

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