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70 terms

test 1

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Anatomy
Structure
Physiology
Function
Anatomical Position
person is standing, facing the observer, feet flat on the floor, arms hanging down by their side, with palms facing forward.
Proximal
closer to the main body
Distal
farther from the main body
Dorsal
back side
posterior
back side
Ventral
front side
anterior
front side
Superior
above; closer to the head in humans and closer to the backbone in a 4-legged animal.
Inferior
below; farther from the head in humans and closer to the underside or belly of a 4-legged animal.
Medial
closer to the midline of the body
Lateral
farther away from the midline of the body
Superficial
closer to the surface of the body
Deep
farther away (deeper inside) from the surface of the body
Ipsilateral
on the same side of the body
Contralateral
on opposite sides of the body
Cranial
skull
Cephalic
head
Brachial
arm
Antebrachial
forearm
Axillary
armpit
Thoracic
chest
Patellar
kneecap
Gluteal
buttocks
Crural
anterior lower leg
Sural
calf
Tarsal
ankle
Cervical
neck
Pollex
thumb
Hallux
big toe
Metacarpal (palmar)
palm
Plantar
sole of foot
Midsagittal
divides body or organ into EQUAL right and left halves.
Parasagittal
division into UNEQUAL right and left sides.
Frontal (Coronal)
division into a front side and a back side.
Transverse (Horizontal or Cross-section)
division into upper and lower parts.
Oblique
division that passes through the body or an organ at an angle.
Pericardial cavity
houses heart
Pleural cavity
houses lungs
Mediastinum
contains ALL the structures in the thoracic (chest) cavity EXCEPT the lungs.
Abdominal cavity
Organs (viscera) include:
stomach, spleen, pancreas, liver, gall bladder, small intestine and most of the large intestine.
Pelvic cavity
Viscera include:
Urinary bladder, part of the large intestine, and male and female reproductive structures.
ABDOMINOPELVIC QUADRANTS
two imaginary lines that pass vertically and horizontally through the umbilicus.
HOMEOSTASIS
maintains a CONSTANT internal environment within certain physiological parameters.
Homeostatic imbalance
disease.
Carbohydrates
simple sugars such as glucose
Lipids
glycerol + fatty acid chains
Proteins
amino acids
Nucleic Acids
nucleotides
DNA
A, T, G, C
RNA
A, U, G, C
Prophase
chromatin condenses, spindle forms, nuclear membrane disappears.
Metaphase
sister chromatids line up on the equator of the cell.
Anaphase
sister chromatids are pulled apart at the centromere and chromosomes are pulled to opposite poles of the cell.
Telophase
cytokinesis (cell divides into two new daughter cells), chromosomes decondense, spindle disappears, nuclear membrane reforms.
Gap 1 (G1)
cell grows in size by making more organelles and cytoplasm.
Gap 2 (G2)
Cell prepares for mitosis
Ion
atom that has a charge.
Cation
positive charge: Na+, Ca++
Anion
negative charge: Cl-
Catabolism
breaking down large molecules into small molecules.
Anabolism
building large molecules from small molecules
OSMOSIS
natural unassisted movement of WATER from an area of HIGH water concentration to an area of LOW water concentration.
Solute
substance that is dissolved in water.
Isotonic
solute concentrations are EQUAL on both sides of the cell membrane.
Hypotonic
LOW solute concentration (and therefore HIGH water concentration) OUTSIDE the cell.
Hypertonic
HIGH solute concentration (and therefore LOW water concentration) OUTSIDE the cell.
Acids
pH 0 to pH <7.0
Bases
pH >7.0 to pH 14.