What are some molecular determinants of viral virulence?
Envelope glycoproteins and capsid proteins Viral polymerase and other proteins Noncoding regions of viral genome
What are some mechanisms of viral virulence?
Modulation of host immune response Modulation of growth factors and cytokines Modulation of apoptosis Disruption of intracellular Ca homeostasis Production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates Modulation of intracellular deoxynucleoside triphosphate pool
What are some ways that viral infections can persist for a long time?
Ability to infect host cells without being cytopathic Integration into the host chromosomes Inhibition of detection and elimination by the host immune responses
What factors can reactivate a herpesvirus infection?
What are some different strategies used to develop inactivated virus peptide vaccines?
In vitro chemical synthesis
What are some different strategies used to develop inactivated virus protein vaccines?
Recombinant DNA expression in bacteria Recombinant DNA expression in yeast Recombinant DNA expression in mammalian cells Recombinant DNA expression in cell culture or insect cells Recombinant DNA expression in heterologous virus
What term refers to the fact that protection is conferred on the unvaccinated in a population when a certain threshold number of individuals is vaccinated?
What is the study of the determinants, dynamics and distribution of disease in populations?
What is the measure of disease frequency in a population over a specific period of time?
What is the measure of disease frequency at a particular time?
What is the term for a virus that is infecting people worldwide?
What are some different types of studies done to investigate causation of an epidemic?
Cross-section study Case-control study Cohort study
What are all the different modes a virus can be transmitted?
Horizontal Direct contact Indirect contact Common vehicle Airborne Arthropod-borne Vertical Iatrogenic (accidental transmission by professionals) Nosocomial (hospital-derived infection) Zoonotic
What are some different ways of disease surveillance?