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E2- Genetic def.
Terms in this set (49)
the scientific study of congenital abnormalities and abnormal formations.
an agent or factor that causes malformation of an embryo
the origin and development of morphological characteristics. Cells specialize or differentiate to become organs and parts of the body
an unborn offspring of a mammal, in particular an unborn human baby more than eight weeks after conception.
the complete set of genes or genetic material present in a cell or organism. The genetic composition of a haploid set of chromosomes in a gamete or microorganism or in each cell of a multicellular organism.
The location of a gene in a chromosome
a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.
the material of which the chromosomes of organisms other than bacteria (i.e., eukaryotes) are composed. It consists of protein, RNA, and DNA.
the region of a chromosome to which the microtubules of the spindle attach,, via the kinetochore, during cell division.
p-arm: short arm,
q-arm: long arm
each of the two threadlike strands into which a chromosome divides longitudinally during cell division. Each contains a double helix of DNA.
a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes.
is a process of nuclear division in eukaryotic cells that occurs when a parent cell divides to produce two identical daughter cells. During cell division, mitosis refers specifically to the separation of the duplicated genetic material carried in the nucleus.
is the form of eukaryotic cell division that produces haploid sex cells or gametes (which contain a single copy of each chromosome) from diploid cells (which contain two copies of each chromosome).
any cell of a living organism other than the reproductive cells
a mature haploid male or female germ cell that is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote.
containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent.
having a single set of unpaired chromosomes.
any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome; appear in pairs in body cells but as single chromosomes in spermatozoa.
a threadlike strand of DNA in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order; "humans have 22 chromosome pairs plus two sex chromosomes"
a chromosome involved with determining the sex of an organism, typically one of two kinds, X and Y (xy = male, xx = female)
(named after discoverer Murray Barr) is the inactive X chromosome in a female somatic cell, rendered inactive in a process called lyonization, in those species in which sex is determined by the presence of the Y (including humans) or W chromosome rather than the diploidy of the X.
a unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring. (in technical use) a distinct sequence of nucleotides forming part of a chromosome, the order of which determines the order of monomers in a polypeptide or nucleic acid molecule which a cell (or virus) may synthesize.
A fixed position on a chromosome that is occupied by a given gene or one of its alleles.
one of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome.
the number and visual appearance of the chromosomes in the cell nuclei of an organism or species.
the genetic constitution of an individual organism
the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment
a word that refers to a particular gene that has identical alleles on both homologous chromosomes. It is referred to by two capital letters (XX) for a dominant trait, and two lowercase letters (xx) for a recessive trait
Genes come in pairs, called alleles, and each pair is located in a specific position (or locus) on a chromosome. If the two alleles at a locus are identical to each other, they are homozygous; if they are different from one another, they are ?
an allele that produces the same phenotype whether its paired allele is identical or different.
an allele that produces its characteristic phenotype only when its paired allele is identical.
A ?, is a person or other organism that has inherited a recessive allele for a genetic trait or mutation but usually does not display that trait or show symptoms of the disease. ... The chance of two carriers having a child with the disease is 25%.
hereditary carrier (or just carrier)
the situation in which a heterozygous genotype is associated with a phenotype that is more or less intermediate between the phenotypes controlled by the two homozygous genotypes. (voice)
When two alleles for a trait are equally expressed with neither being recessive or dominant
ex. include a person with type AB blood, which means that both the A allele and the B allele are equally expressed.
the extent to which a particular gene or set of genes is expressed in the phenotypes of individuals carrying it, measured by the proportion of carriers showing the characteristic phenotype.
In genetics, quantifies variation in a non-binary phenotype across individuals carrying a particular genotype. It is equal to the proportion of individual carriers of a genotype for a trait who show the trait to a specifiable extent
correct # of chromosomes (46)
containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent. (46)
having a single set of unpaired chromosomes. (23)
a chromosomal disorder, in which a fetus has three copies of every chromosome instead of the normal two (46+23=69) Spontanious abortion
a chromosomal disorder, in which a fetus has four copies of every chromosome instead of the normal two. (92), Spontanious abortion
having particular genes or chromosomal regions present in extra or fewer copies than in the normal type.
three copies of any chromosome
the condition of having a diploid chromosome complement in which one (usually the X) chromosome lacks its homologous partner. (usually fatal)
failure of paired chromsdomes to separate and migrate to opposite poles. Leads to trisomy or monisomy
deletion of genetic material results in ? chromosome with missing genetic material
occurs when there is a break in two chrom and the genetic material is switched between them
occurs when there are TWO breaks in the SAME chromosome and the resulting piece of genetic material is turned UPSIDE DOWN and reinserted
the property or state of being composed of cells of two genetically different types.
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