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From the study guide.

T/F: Life expectancy amog the seventeenth-century settlers of Maryland and Virginia was about sixty years.

False, it was under 50 for New Englanders

T/F: Because men greatly outnumbered women in the Chesapeake region, a fierce competition arose among men for scarce females


T/F: By the eighteenth century, the Chesapeake population was growing on the basis of natural increase


T/F: Chesapeake Bay tobacco planters responded to falling prices by cutting back production

False, they moved westward and started planting more

T/F: The "headright" system of land grants to those who brought laborers to America primarily benefited wealthy planters rather than the poor indentured servants


T/F: Most of the European immigrants who came to Virginia and Maryland in the seventeenth century were indentured servants


T/F: Bacon's Rebellion involved an alliance of white indentured servants and Indians who attacked the elite planter class

False, the Indians were attacked instead of being the attackers

T/F: African slaves began to replace white indentured servants as the primary labor supply in the plantation colonies in the 1680s


T/F: Slaves brought to North America developed a culture that mixed African and American elements


T/F: Directly beneath the wealthy slaveowning planters in the southern social structure were the white indentured servants

False, the small farmers and landless laborers came before them

T/F: New Englanders' long lives contributed to the general stability and order of their childbearing and family life


T/F: New England expansion was carried out primarily by independent pioneers and land speculators who bought up large plots and then sold them to individual farmers

False, it wa carried out by town fathers that obtained charters and distributed land for settlement towns

T/F: New England women enjoyed fewer rights to inherit and own property than women in the South


T/F: New England's commercial wealth was based on the export of agricultural crops to England and elsewhere

False, they had poor soil so they relied on shipbuilding, commerence, fishing, and lumber

T/F: Seventeenth-century American life was generally simple and lacking in displays of wealth or elaborate class distinctions


For most of their early history, the colonies of Maryland and Virginia:
A) provided a healthy environment for child rearing
B) contained far more men than women
C) had harsh laws punishing premarital sex relations
D) encouraged the formation of stable and long-lasting marriages


The primary beneficiaries of the "headright" system were:
A) landowners who paid the transalantic passage for indentured servants
B) widows who acquired new husbands from England
C) indentured servants who were able to acquire their own land
D) English ship owners who transported new laborers across the Atlantic


The primary cause of Bacon's Rebellion was:
A) Governor Berkeley's harsh treatment of the Indians
B) the refusal of landlords to grant indentured servants their freedom
C) the poverty and discontent of many single young men unable to acquire land
D) the persecution of the colonists by King Charles II


African slavery became the prevalent form of labor in the 1680s when:
A) planters were no longer able to rely on white indentured servants as a labor force
B) the first captives were brought from Africa to the New World
C) blacks could be brought to the New World in safer and healthier condition
D) the once-clear legal difference between a servant and a slave began to be blurred


The culture that developed among the slaves in the English colonies of North America was:
A) derived primarily from that of the white masters
B) based mainly on the traditions of southern Asia
C) a combination of several African and American cultures
D) originally developed in the West Indies and spread northward


Political and economic power in the southern colonies was dominated by:
A) urban professional classes such as lawyers and bankers
B) small landowners
C) wealthy planters
D) the English royal governors


Because there were few urban centers in the colonial South:
A) good roads between the isolated plantations were constructed early on
B) a professional class of lawyers and financiers was slow to develop
C) the rural church became the central focus of southern social and economic life
D) there were almost no people of wealth and culture in the region


Puritan lawmakers in New England prevented married women from having property rights because:
A) they believed that property should be held by towns, not private citizens
B) they feared that too much property would fall into control of the numerous widows
C) they feared that separate property rights for women should undercut the unity of married couples
D) the Bible plainly prohibited women from owning property


In New England, elementary education:
A) was mandatory for any town with more than fifty families
B) failed to provide even basic literary to the large majority of citizens
C) was less widespread than in the South
D) was oriented to preparing students for entering college


The Congregational Church of the Puritans contributed to:
A) the development of basic democracy in the New England town meeting
B) the extremely hierarchical character of New England life
C) the social harmony and unity displayed throughout the seventeenth century in New England towns
D) the growing movement toward women's rights in New England


In contrast to the Chesapeake Bay colonists, those in New England:
A) had fewer women and more men in their population
B) had shorter life expectancies
C) practiced birth control as a means of preventing overpopulation
D) enjoyed longer lives and more stable families


The focus of much of New England's politics, religion, and education was the institution of:
A) the colonial legislature
B) the town
C) the milita company
D) the college


The "Half-Way Covenant" provided:
A) baptism but not "full communion" to people who had not had a conversion experience
B) partial participation in politics to people who were not church members
C) admission to communion but not voting membership in the church
D) partial participation in church affairs for women


Those people accused of being witches in Salem were generally:
A) from the poorer and more uneducated segments of the town
B) notorious for their deviation from teh moral norms of the community
C) outspoken opponents of the Puritan clergy
D) from families associated with Salem's burgeoning market economy


English settlers greatly altered the character of the New England environment by:
A) raising wheat and oats rather than the corn grown by Indians
B) their extensive introduction of livestock
C) beating trails through the woods as they pursued seasonal hunting and fishing
D) building an extensive system of roads and canals


Name: Early Maryland and Virginia settlers had difficulty creating them and even more difficulty making them last


Name: Primary cause of death among tobacco-growing settlers


Name: Immigrants who received passage to America in exchange for a fixed term of labor

indentured servants

Name: Maryland and Virginia's system of granting land to anyone who would pay trans-Atlantic passage for laborers


Name: Fate of many of Nathaniel Bacon's followers, though not of Bacon himself

hanging (bacon died from disease)

Name: American colony that was home to the Newport slave market and many slave traders

Rhode Island

Name: English company that lost its monopoly on the slave trade in 1698

Royal African Company

Name: African American dialect that blended English with Yoruba, Ibo, and Hausa


Name: Uprisings that occured in New York City in 1712 and in South Carolina in 1739

slave revolt

Name: Wealthy extended clans like the Fitzhughs, Lees, and Washingtons that dominated politics in the most populous colony

First Familes of Virginia

Name: Approximate marriage age of most New England women

Early 20s

Name: the basic local political institution of New England, in which all freemen gathered to elect officials and debate local affairs

town meetings

Name: Formula devised by Puritan ministers in 1662 to offer partial church membership to people who had not experienced conversion

Half-way covenants

Name: Late seventeenth-century judicial event that inflamed popular feelings, led to the deaths of twenty people, and weakened the Puritan clergy's prestige

Salem witch trials

Name: Primary occupation of most seventeenth-century Americans

farming (moo)

Match: Major middle-colonies rebellion that caused thirty-three deaths

New York City slave revolt of 1712

Match: Helped erase the earlier puritan distinction between the converted "elect" and other members of the society

Half-Way Covenant

Match: Small New York revolt of 1689-1691 that relfected class antagonism between landlords and merchants

Leisler's Rebellion

Match: Primary laborers in early southern colonies until the 1680s

Indentured servants

Match: Experience for which human beings were branded and chained, and which only 80 percent survived

Middle passage

Match: Author of a novel about the early New England practice of requiring adulterers to wear the letter "A"

Nathanael Hawthrone

Match: West African religious rite, retained by African Americans, in which participants responded to the shouts of a preacher


Match: Phenomena started by adolescent girls' accusations that ended with the deaths of twenty people

Salem witch trials

Match: Virginia-Maryland bay area, site of the earliest colonial settlements


Match: The legacy of Puritan religion that inspired idealism and reform among later generations of Americans

"New England conscience"

Match: Colonial Virginia official who crushed rebels and wreaked cruel revenge

Governor Berkeley

Match: The oldest college in the South, founded in 1793

William and Mary

Match: Organization whose loss of the slave trade monopoly in 1698 led to free-enterprise expansion of the business

Royal African Company

Match: agitator who led poor former indentured servants and frontiersmen on a rampage against Indians and colonial government

Nathaniel Bacon

Match: The oldest college in America, originally based on the Puritan commitment to an educated ministry


Order (first 5):
-Poor Virginia whites revolt against governor and rich planters
-Partial church membership is opened to the unconverted
-First Africans arrive in Virginia
-Landless whites in Virginia lose the right to vote
-First colonial college is founded

-First Africans arrive in Virginia
-First colonial college is founded
-Partial church membership is opened to the unconverted
-Landless whites in Virginia lose the right to vote
-Poor Virginia whites revolt against governor and rich planters

Order (last 5):
-Major rebellion by African Americans occurs in one of the middle colonies
-African slaves begin to replace white indentured labor on southern
-Poor Virginia whites revolt against governor and rich planters
-Royal slave trade monopoly ends
-southern slaves in revolt try but fail to march to Spanish Florida
-"Legal Lynching" of twenty accused witches occurs

-Poor Virginia whites revolt against governor and rich planters
-African slaves begin to replace white indentured labor on southern plantations
-"Legal Lynching" of twenty accused witches occurs
-Royal slave trade monopoly ends
-Major rebellion by African Americans occurs in one of the middle colonies
-southern slaves in revolt try but fail to march to Spanish Florida

C/E: This inspired passage of strict "slave codes"

The dramatic increase in colonial slave population after 1680s

C/E: This sparked Bacon's Rebellion

Poor white males' anger at their inability to acquire land or start families

C/E: This produced a large number of unattached males and a weak family structure

The severe shortage of females in southern colonies

C/E: This thwarted success in agriculture but helped create the tough New England character

The rocky soil and harsh climate of New England

C/E: This inspired the Half-Way Covenant and jeremiad preaching

The decline of religious devotion and in number of conversions in New England

C/E: This reduced forests and damaged the soil

New Englanders' introduction of livestock and intensive agriculture

C/E: This produced high birthrates and a very stable family structure

The healthier climate and more equal male-female ratio in New England

C/E: This fostered stronger slave families and growth of slave population through natural reproduction of children

The growing proportion of female slaves in the Chesapeake region after 1720

C/E: Caused the Salem witchcraft persecutions

Unsettled New England social conditions and anxieties about the decline of the Puritan religious heritage

C/E: This caused southern planters to switch from indentured-servant labor to African slavery

Planters' fear of indentured servants' rebellion, coupled with rising wages in England

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