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Biology-Cells Vocabulary Terms
Terms in this set (21)
A proposed and widely accepted view of how most life on Earth functions. According to the theory, all organisms are made of cells. Groups of cells create tissues, organs, and organisms. Further, cells can only arise from other cells.
An outer layer surrounding certain cells that is outside of the cell membrane. All cells have cell membranes, but generally only plants, fungi, algae, most bacteria, and archaea have cells with cell walls. The cell wall provides strength and structural support to the cell, and can control to some extent what types and concentrations of molecules enter and leave the cell.
A small structure made of microtubules which exists as part of the centrosome, which helps organize microtubules in the body. A centriole is the main unit that creates and anchors microtubules in the cell.
Found only in algal and plant cells, it is a cell organelle that produces energy through photosynthesis.
A large organelle made of membranous sheets and tubules that begin near the nucleus and extend across the cell. The endoplasmic reticulum creates, packages, and secretes many of the products created by a cell.
Organisms whose bodies are made up of eukaryotic cells, such as protists, fungi, plants and animals.
A form of facilitated transport involving the passive movement of molecules along their concentration gradient, guided by the presence of another molecule - usually an integral membrane protein forming a pore or channel.
An organelle in eukaryotic organisms that moves molecules from the endoplasmic reticulum to their destination. The organelle also modifies products of the endoplasmic reticulum to their final form.
An organism's process of maintaining a stable internal environment suitable for sustaining life.
Muscles that are more toned, or have greater tension, than other muscles in a body or are more toned than a "normal" comparison model. Hypertonic fluids have a greater osmotic pressure than other fluids, and hypertonic solutions have a higher solution concentration than another, more diluted solution.
A solution having less osmotic pressure, or concentration, than another solution between a semi-permeable membrane. In more simpler terms, hypotonic can mean a solution that has a lower concentration of solutes than other solutions, made of the same solutes.
A term used to describe solutions and chemistry and, sometimes, muscles in human biology.
A biological membrane consisting of two layers of lipid molecules.
Specialized vesicles within cells that digest large molecules through the use of hydrolytic enzymes.
Organelles within eukaryotic cells that produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the main energy molecule used by the cell.
A large organelle in eukaryotic organisms which protects the majority of the DNA within each cell. The nucleus also produces the necessary precursors for protein synthesis.
The pressure that would be required to stop water from diffusing through a barrier by osmosis. In other words, it refers to how hard the water would "push" to get through the barrier in order to diffuse to the other side.
Unicellular organisms that consist of a single prokaryotic cell. Prokaryotic cells are simple cells that do not have a true nucleus or other cell organelles.
A protein which binds to a specific molecule.
A complex cellular mechanism used to translate genetic code into chains of amino acids. Long chains of amino acids fold and function as proteins in cells.
An organelle in cells which functions to hold various solutions or materials. This includes solutions that have been created and are being stored or excreted, and those that have been phagocytized, or engulfed, by the cell.
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