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AP Psych Module 9
Terms in this set (22)
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system.
the part of a neuron that contains the nucleus; the cell's life-support center.
a neuron's often bushy, branching extensions that receive and integrate messages, conducting impulses toward the cell body.
the neuron extension that passes messages through its branches to other neurons or to muscles or glands.
a fatty tissue layer segmentally encasing the axons of some neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed as neural impulses hop from one node to the next.
cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons; they also play a role in learning, thinking, and memory.
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon.
the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse.
in neural processing, a brief resting pause that occurs after a neuron has fired
a neuron's reaction of either firing (with a full-strength response) or not firing.
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron.
chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
a neurotransmitter's reabsorption by the sending neuron.
natural, opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure.
a molecule that increases a neurotransmitter's action.
a molecule that inhibits or blocks a neurotransmitter's action.
Enables muscle action, learning, and memory
Influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion
Affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal
Helps control alertness and arousal
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
A major inhibitory neurotransmitter
A major excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in memory
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