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Given the data in the table, which country is both a major producer and importer of oil?
Given the data in the table, which country is least likely to be a major oil exporter?
Brazil because it's consumption and production are nearly identical.
Which factor is least likely to reduce a high standard of living in a country with abundant natural resources?
1. A.poor government policies
2. B.bad harvests
3. C.high taxes
4. D.low population growth

Answer: D
What causes the area inside the Arctic Circle to experience 24-hour daylight during the June solstice?
1. A.Earth's orbital position is closest to the Sun.
2. B.Earth's axis tilts the north pole toward the Sun.
3. C.The Moon does not block any light from the Sun.
4. D.The Sun's rays shine directly on the equator.

Answer: B
In recent decades, in which way have space satellites most significantly changed communication between regions?
A.They help relay information from media sources clearer and faster.
B.They have improved the quality of information passed between regions.
C.They have made it easier to study conditions in outer space.
D.They make it possible to photograph Earth's atmosphere and predict the weather.

Answer: A
What is the primary way in which the Panama Canal increased interaction among regions of the world?
By making many destinations more accessible by ship.
Which pattern of settlement emerged in connection with the 1848 discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California?
1. A.Prospectors traveling by boat landed in San Francisco, turning what had been a small settlement into a boomtown.
2. B.The area around Sutter's Mill teemed with prospectors who returned home when the "gold fever" died down.
3. C.Prospectors bypassed San Francisco and settled in Coloma to be nearer to the largest gold deposits.
4. D.When the gold veins were either exhausted or claimed, prospectors settled in southern California.

Answer: A
In the 1800s, European settlers came in large numbers to the American Midwest in search of prosperity. What geographic features led to heavy settlement in this region?
Fertile Prairies.
Assuming population growth continued at a similar rate as in the prior decades, what is the estimated population of Ecuador in 2005?
Central America is periodically disturbed by the shifting of continental plates. What does this suggest about risk factors in Central America?
There is a high risk of earthquakes.
Many immigrants who came to North America in the nineteenth century settled in the American Midwest and the Canadian prairies. Which pull factor most likely brought immigrants to these specific areas?
farming opportunities
What was a prevailing push factor in the Mormon migration from Illinois to Utah?
escape from persecution
Approximately 70% of the energy needs in some countries are met by burning wood, which causes deforestation and harms the environment. Which alternative energy source would have the least impact on the environment?
1. A.burning coal
2. B.nuclear fission
3. C.solar cells
4. D.burning oil

Answer: Solar Cells
A city lies on a fault line but has not experienced a major earthquake for many years. Which action would be best for the city to take now to prevent property damage during a possible earthquake in the future?
1. A.Acquire technology to detect warning signs in advance.
2. B.Develop an extensive disaster cleanup plan.
3. C.Design structures that can withstand extreme stress.
4. D.Create an emergency response plan to provide essential services.
Answer: C
A new method of coal mining involves blasting away the tops of mountains. This method is quicker and cheaper for mining companies. However, some groups have objected to the practice. Identify two reasons some groups might oppose this new method.
Constructed Response:
Environmental Protection Reasons:
As the U.S. population grows, the use of groundwater in the western states will also increase mainly due to
the need to irrigate semiarid farmland for raising crops.
In 1849, prospectors from throughout the world migrated to California to search for gold. Which migration most closely resembled the California gold rush in terms of its cause?
1. A.the Dust Bowl migration of the 1930s
2. B.the East Texas Oil Boom migration of the 1930s
3. C.the Great Migration of African Americans to the northern United States in the early 1900s
4. D.the Trail of Tears migration of American Indians in 1831

Answer: B
Patterns of immigration to the United States have changed considerably since the nineteenth century. In the twentieth century, there was less immigration to the United States from which region than there was during the nineteenth century?
1. A.Southeast Asia
2. B.Europe
3. C.Mexico
4. D.India
Answer: B
Which technology was not directly made possible by the invention of the steam engine?
1. A.hydroelectric dams
2. B.railroads
3. C.paddle-wheel boats
4. D.ironclad warships
Answer: A
In the 1840s, telegraph poles and wires began crowding the rural and urban landscapes of nations around the world. Which type of power was most directly responsible for making the telegraph possible?
1. A.coal
2. B.nuclear
3. C.steam
4. D.electric

Answer: D
In the 1930s, the Great Plains in the United States was nicknamed the Dust Bowl due to
1. A.a series of hurricanes that destroyed small towns.
2. B.a drought that drove farmers off their land.
3. C.a series of diseases affecting livestock.
4. D.an area of mining that was harmful to residents.
Answer: B
In 1960, about 22% of the Brazilian population lived in cities. By 1995, this figure rose to over 75%. What was the most significant cause of this change in Brazil?
1. A.the destruction of large portions of the rain forest
2. B.a lack of natural resources
3. C.the continued industrialization of the country
4. D.climate change due to global warming
Answer: C
The Great Migration of the early twentieth century saw large numbers of African Americans moving away from the southern United States into other regions of the country. Provide at least one push factor that describes why African Americans left the South and at least one pull factor that drew African Americans to the areas in which they settled.
Constructed Response Q:
Jobs, Economics, Opportunity
Water usage is a growing area of environmental concern. Worldwide shortages of available freshwater have resulted in
1. A.a growing dependency on seawater.
2. B.an increase in the spread of infectious diseases.
3. C.worldwide expansion of irrigated crops.
4. D.population shifts away from coastal areas.
Answer: B
Man-made chemicals can be found in surface water and groundwater. For human consumption, the biggest issue with the chemicals in most water is
1. A.taste.
2. B.color.
3. C.safety.
4. D.flow.
Answer: C
Select two types of maps from the list. Describe how each of the maps you chose would be useful in analyzing settlement patterns of present-day locations.
constructed response:
The National Park Service was founded in 1916 and is dedicated to protecting land and wildlife. The National Park Service now includes over eighty-four million acres of protected land. Which conclusion does this information support?
1. A.Federal programs protect all wilderness areas.
2. B.All national parks were established by 1916.
3. C.The National Park Service has created protected areas in every state.
4. D.The government has had a major impact on wilderness conservation.
Answer: D
Soil erosion is a serious problem in semi-arid regions because it threatens crop production and can lead to famine. Which action can be a possible solution to the problem of erosion?
1. A.grazing cattle on semi-arid land
2. B.stripping wild plants and trees for food sources
3. C.building urban centers on eroded areas
4. D.planting trees to hold back advancing desert areas
Answer: D
Wave action can erode shorelines. As a result, wave action can result in
1. A.the creation of deep underwater trenches.
2. B.the loss of fish habitats.
3. C.the loss of private property.
4. D.the expansion of floodplains.
Answer: C
Prior to the construction of the Panama Canal, the 1903 Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty gave the United States permanent control of the Canal Zone for a one-time payment of $10 million plus an annual fee of $250,000. In 1964, Panamanians rioted over this treaty. What was the basis of their objection?
1. A.They wanted to renegotiate for greater financial compensation.
2. B.They were concerned that the canal would be used to transport weapons.
3. C.They feared that the United States would extend its control to the rest of the country.
4. D.They believed that sovereignty over the Canal Zone should be returned to Panama.
Answer: D
The data in this population pyramid most likely represent a country with
low economic development.
In 1985, migratory bird populations in North America had dropped to record lows. Recognizing the importance of these birds and the need for international cooperation to help in the recovery of a shared resource, the U.S., Mexican, and Canadian governments developed a treaty to restore the populations through habitat protection, restoration, and enhancement. Such treaties are important because they
ensure that bird species will receive equal protection in all participating nations.
How did the Mississippi River affect nineteenth century commerce in the United States?
It provided an efficient method of transporting goods.
Which geographical feature played the least significant role in drawing settlers to California in the nineteenth century?
1. A.mountain ranges
2. B.mild climate
3. C.gold deposits
4. D.arable land
Answer: A
During the 1930s, the American prairie lands were subject to frequent and powerful dust storms that earned the region the unflattering nickname "The Dust Bowl."
Part A
Describe the human-environment interaction that helped create conditions leading to the Dust Bowl.
Part B
Describe how the effects of that human-environment interaction were made worse by climate conditions.
Part C
Describe how the Dust Bowl conditions led to economic hardship.
Part D
Briefly describe the scope and primary destination of the Dust Bowl migration.
The 1940s saw the introduction of synthetic chemical pesticides in agriculture. Over time, many agricultural pests have become resistant to these pesticides. One practical andlong-term method of countering this threat is to
encourage crop management based on the properties of a farm's ecosystem.
In southwestern California, dry, hot, and dusty winds called Santa Anas blow westward from the deserts out to sea. What is one way the Santa Ana winds impact the people and resources of the region?
The Santa Anas increase the danger of wildfires, which destroy homes and wildlife habitats.
Natural resources are being depleted, and there is growing concern over what will happen as they continue to diminish. Why are environmentalists more concerned about "nonrenewable" resources than other kinds of resources?
Nonrenewable resources take a very long time to replenish naturally.
In a debate about a type of mining called mountaintop removal, a supporter of the practice claims that the unwanted dirt and rock poured into adjacent valleys does not harm the environment. Which point would best counter that claim?
1. A.The unwanted dirt and rock is not native to the valley.
2. B.The unwanted dirt and rock poses a threat to surrounding communities.
3. C.The unwanted dirt and rock can harm fragile ecosystems.
4. D.The unwanted dirt and rock spoils the natural beauty of the valley.
Answer: C
Why does the United States import certain products that it is capable of producing?
.The United States knows other countries can produce goods at lower costs.
In 1959, Cuba underwent a revolution and adopted a new economic system. How did this affect relations between Cuba and the United States?
Cuba's new economic system and choice of allies led to conflict with the United States.
Which nickname belongs to a region in the United States known for its rich soil and a climate advantageous to farming?
Bread Basket
Many steel companies and other manufacturers are based in the Northeast, Midwest, and Mid-Atlantic states. This area was labeled the "Rust Belt" in the 1970s as a result of which factor?
Numerous factories closed down.
The South American country of Brazil was a colony of Portugal for over three hundred years. This information best supports the conclusion that
1. A.Brazil has been strongly influenced by Portuguese culture.
2. B.Brazil is still subject to Portuguese law.
3. C.Brazilians, like most South Americans, typically speak Spanish.
4. D.Most Brazilians are of pure Portuguese descent.
Answer: A
Which series of roads is the shortest driving route from Lubbock to Austin?
87 to 190 to 183
Which of the given paths is the shortest route from McCrea to Lacour?
Route 417 south to Route 419 east to Route 1 south to Route 972 north
To which component of Earth's physical systems does Antarctic glacier ice belong?
To which component of Earth's physical systems does igneous rock belong?
Canada and the United States have entered into a number of agreements regarding the Great Lakes.
Part A
What is the general purpose of these agreements?
Part B
How do these agreements affect the economies of the two nations?
Which type of map is most useful for locating major industries in a country?
1. A.annual precipitation map
2. B.economic activity map
3. C.population density map
4. D.natural resource map
Answer B
When New Orleans was acquired as part of the Louisiana Purchase, the city's importance as a trade center grew because key inland valleys in existing U.S. territory were connected to the city by
1. A.roads.
2. B.railways.
3. C.rivers.
4. D.lakes.
Answer: C
nformation about the relative location of a place indicates its location with respect to
1. A.a longitudinal line.
2. B.a point with a known position.
3. C.the prime meridian.
4. D.the nearest perceived region.
Answer: B
Which two countries are in the same time zone?
1. A.New York and Chile
2. B.England and Portugal
3. C.Japan and China
4. D.Peru and Argentina
Answer: B
What is the approximate distance between Baton Rouge, Louisiana, and Springfield, Illinois?
650 miles
Which area in Canada is most likely to have the highest population density?
the area around the St. Lawrence River valley
Which factor explains seasonal climate differences in Earth's middle latitudes?
the tilt of Earth's axis
The Internet has increased interaction among people of different regions of the world by improving
instant communication.
Why were trading posts and general stores established throughout the western United States during the gold rush?
They made profits by stocking supplies needed to equip miners.
According to the population pyramids, which statement is true?
1. A.Country B has a much higher birth rate than Country A.
2. B.People born in Country B have a higher chance of living into their 80s than people born in Country A.
3. C.The number of men in Country A will most likely rise in the future.
4. D.Country A and Country B have almost the same total population.
Answer: B