39 terms

Unit 1

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Human geography
One of the two major divisions of Geography; the spatial analysis of human population, its cultures, activities, and landscapes.
Physical geography
the study of physical features of the earth's surface
Absolute location
exact location of a place on the earth described by global coordinates
Relative location
the regional position or situation of a place relative to the position of other places
Spatial perspective
observing variations in geographic phenomena across space
Map
a diagrammatic representation of the earth's surface (or part of it)
Mental map
An internal representation of a portion of Earth's surface based on what an individual knows about a place, containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located.
Distribution
the act of distributing or spreading or apportioning
Pattern
a customary way of operation or behavior
Formal region
An area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics
Functional (nodal) region
An area organized around a node or focal point
Perceptual (vernacular) region
A region that only exists as a conceptualization or an idea and not as a physically demarcated entity.
Remote sensing
The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods.
Geographic Information Systems
A collection of computer hardware and software that permits spatial data to be collected, recorded, stored, retrieved, manipulated, analyzed, and displayed to the user.
Diffusion
the act of dispersing or diffusing something
Expansion diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process.
Relocation diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another.
Acculturation
the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture.
Assimilation
the process of assimilating new ideas into an existing cognitive structure
Transculturation
cultural borrowing that occurs when different cultures of approximately equal complexity and technological level come into close contact
Contagious diffusion
The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population.
Hierarchical diffusion
The spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places
Stimulus diffusion
The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected.
Independent invention
the term for a trait with many cultural hearths that developed independent of each other
Environmental determinism
the view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life including cultural development
Possibilism
The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives.
Culture
the attitudes and behavior that are characteristic of a particular social group or organization
Cultural diffusion
the spread of cultural elements from one society to another
Cultural landscape
the visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape
Culture hearth
Heartland, source area, innovation center; place of origin of a major culture.
Culture trait
A single element of normal practice in a culture, such as the wearing of a turban.
Culture complex
A related set of culture traits, such as prevailing dress codes and cooking and eating utensils.
Culture realm
A cluster of regions in which related culture systems prevail.
Culture region
an area in which people have many shared culture traits
Culture system
A collection of interacting elements taken together shape a group's collective identity. Includes traits, territorial affiliation, shared history, and more complex elements, like language
Sequent occupance
the notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape
Folk culture
Cultural traits such as dress modes, dwellings, traditions, and institutions of usually small, traditional communities.
Popular culture
Cultural traits such as dress, diet and music that identify and are part of today's changeable, urban-based, media-influenced western societies
Commodification
the process though which something is given monetary value