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36 terms

Anatomy Quiz #1 Vocabulary

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cardiology
The study of the heart and its diseases.
cytology
The study of the structure, function and diseases of cells.
dermatology
The study of the skin and its diseases.
epidemiology
The study of the factors determining the distribution and frequency of the occurence of health-related coditions within a defined human population.
geriatrics
Branch of medicine dealing with elderly persons and their medical problems.
gerontology
The study of the process of aging and the various problems of elderly persons.
histology
The study of the structure and function of tissues.
neonatology
The study of newborn infants and the treatment of their disorders.
obstetrics
Branch of medicine dealing with pregnancy and childbirth
pharmacology
The study of drugs and their uses in the treatment of diseases.
psychiatry
Branch of medicine dealing with the mind and its disorders.
toxicology
The study of poisonous substances and their effects on body parts.
acidosis
A condition of too many hydrogen ions in the blood. (i.e. pH below 7.35)
alkalosis
A condition of too few hydrogen ions in the blood. (i.e. pH above 7.45)
ionizing radiation
Radiation that causes atoms to ionize, e.g., radioisotopes and X-rays.
ketosis
A form of acidosis resulting from excessive ketones in the blood due to an incomplete breakdown of lipids. Often occurs during starvation and acute attacks of diabetes mellitus.
anaplasia
The alteration of cells to a more embryonic form, often seen in cancer cells.
dialysis
The process of seperating smaller solute molecules from larger ones in a solution by means of diffusion through a selectively permeable membrane. This process is used in artificial kidneys to cleanse the blood of metabolic wastes.
dysplasia
Abnormal development of tissue.
hypertrophy
An increase in the size of an organ or muscle due to an increase in the size of the cells. This is the normal response of muscles to weightlifting.
hyperplasia
An increase in the size of a tissue or organ due to an increase in the number of cells.
liposomes
Hollow microscopic sacs formed of phospholipids that can be filled with a variety of drugs.
mutation
A change in the DNA base sequence leading to incorporation of "incorrect" amino acids in particular positions in the resulting protein. This may (or may not) impair or stop the protein's normal functioning and may cause disease.
necrosis
Death of a cell or group of cells due to injury or disease.
deletion
Chromosomal aberration in which part of a chromosome is lost.
down syndrome
Also known as mongolism, this condition usually reflects the presence of an extra autosome. Children born with this may have slightly slanted eyes and flattened facial features, a tendency towards short stature and may be mentally retarded.
nondisjunction
An abnormal segregation of chromosomes during meiosis, resulting in gametes recieving two or no copies of a particular chromosome, which upon fertilization can result in monosomy or trisomy of that chromosome.
adrenoleukodystrophy
An inherited disorder in which certain fatty acids accumulate and thereby cause seizures, nervous system degeneration and death in childhood.
albinism
An inherited disorder in which the melanin pigment is not produced in the skin or the hair.
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
An inherited disorder that causes the progressive weakening of the muscles, beginning in adulthood.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
An inherited disorder in which the lack of the dystrophin protein causes the skeletal muscle cells to collapse, thus destroying muscles.
Huntington disease
An inherited disorder which, upon reaching adulthood, is seen as a loss of coordination, having uncontrollable movements and even personality changes.
Menkes disease
An inherited disorder in which the body cells cannot utilize copper and thus causes twisted hair, weak arteries, scurvy, poor growth and brain degeneration.
polydactyly
An inherited disorder wherein the person has extra digits (i.e., extra fingers or toes).
progeria
An inherited disorder in which the person appears to go through extreme premature aging during childhood.
xeroderma pigmentosum
An inherited disorder in which a DNA repair mechanism is missing which leads to freckling and a high risk of getting skin cancer.