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Prologue & Chapter 1 Vocab
Terms in this set (44)
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (Also known as the I-knew-it-all along phenomenon.)
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations.
a testable prediction
precise statements of the procedures (operations) used to define independent and dependent variables.
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
a descriptive research strategy in which one person is studied in great depth
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them.
False consensus effect
is the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors.
all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study.
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
involves observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate or control the situation.
a statistical measure that indicates the extent to which two factors vary together and thus how well one factor can be predicted from the other; can be positive or negative.
a depiction of the relationship between two variables by means of a graphed cluster of dots.
the false perception of a relationship between two events when none exists.
a research strategy in which a researcher directly manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) in order to observe their effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variables; experiments therefore make it possible to establish cause-and-effect relationships.
an inert substance or condition that is administered as a test of whether an experimental subjects who mistakenly thinks a treatment
a control procedure in which neither the experimenter nor the research subjects are aware of which condition is in effect. It is used to prevent experimenters' and subjects' expectations from influencing the results of an experiment.
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent.
the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
the procedure of assigning subjects to the experimental and control conditions by chance in order to minimize preexisting differences between the groups.
the factor being manipulated and tested by the investigator.
the factor being measured by the investigator.
the most frequently occurring score in a distribution; it is the simplest measure of central tendency to determine.
the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores.
the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it.
a measure of variation computed as the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.
the average amount by which the scores in a distribution deviate around the mean. Because it is based on every score in the distribution
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
an integrated perspective that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis.
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders.
a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being.
the view that (a) knowledge comes from experience via the senses, and (b) science flourishes through observation and experiment.
a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function - how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish.
levels of analysis
the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon.
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors.
a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind.
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems.
Recommended textbook explanations
Understanding Psychology, Student Edition
Richard A. Kasschau
Arlene Lacombe, Kathryn Dumper, Rose Spielman, William Jenkins
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
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