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Microbiology Test 1: Cell Theory
Terms in this set (12)
Describe Hans & Zacharias Jannsen's contribution to cell theory.
*Invented compound microscope.
*Put two lenses together in series, which increased magnification.
What is the difference between a simple microscope and a compound microscope?
*Simple microscope = one lens (glasses or magnifying glass)
*Compound microscope = 2+ lenses in series
How is magnification calculated?
*Maginification = size of image/size of object
*Units of length must match, then they cancel out so the "unit" is "X" (example: 10X)
*Lenses multiply together, so a 2x lens + 10x lens = 20x magnification
Describe Robert Hooke's contribution to cell theory.
*Curator of Royal Society
*Had an interest in microscopes
*Drew images of bugs and a thin slice of cork, where he could see "cells"
*Coined term "cells" because they reminded him of rooms/cells in a monastery
Describe Antonie van Leeuwenhoek's contribution to cell theory.
*Called the "father of microbiology"
*Made his own microscope out of copper and quartz (made 300x lenses)
*Saw "animalcules" - molecules that moved around - from gunk in someone's teeth, pond water, etc.
*Thought animalcules could play a role in illness
*Gave research to Royal Society, but they brushed it aside. Robert Hooke (curator) saw the research and visited to Antonie and verified his findings.
What did the philosophers do in the late 1700s? (First time)
*Tried to sway people away from Catholic church
*Believed in spontaneous generation (dead material spontaneously generates life). For example meat generates maggots, and hay generates mice.
Describe Lazzaro Spallanzani's contribution to cell theory.
*He was a priest and scientist/microbiologist (he had lots of time)
*Disproved spontaneous generation:
-Boiled food for an hour to kill everything, then incubated in the open for several days. It grew bacteria.
-Boiled food then sealed the flask off, it didn't grow bacteria.
-Concluded that "life only comes from life"
Describe Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann/s contribution to cell theory.
*Matthias Schleiden was a botanist, and Theodor Schwann was a zoologist.
*Schleiden observed that all plants are composed of little repeated units, and schwann observed that animal tissue is also organized in units.
*Together they came up with "cell theory":
1. The cell is the basic unit of life.
2. All living things consist of one or more cells.
Describe Rudolf Virchow's contribution to cell theory.
*Doctor who studied infectious diseases
*Found that if he treated a patient with measles, his next patient would get measles
*Believed that spontaneous generation did NOT work
*Added to cell theory:
3. All living cells come only from other living cells.
What did the philosophers do in the late 1860s? (Second time)
*Decided Lazzaro Spallanzani had made a mistake.
*No life was generated in sealed flask because "life needs oxygen"
Describe Louis Pasteur's contribution to cell theory.
*Disproved spontaneous generation (again):
-Boiled food, put it in a flask with a long tube (swan neck flask)
-Air could still get in, but dust and bacteria would settle in the long tube
-No bacteria grew!
-If he tipped the flask down into the long tube, bacteria would grow
What are the modern cell theory additions?
4. Cell contains hereditary info (DNA), which is passed on from parent cell to progeny cells during cell division.
5. All cells are basically the same in chemical composition and metabolic activities.
(This allows for "model organisms" - we can study insects/animals/bacteria and apply findings to humans.)
6. All chemical/physiological functions are carried out inside the cells (movement, digestion, etc).
7. Cell activity depends on the activities of sub-cellular structures within the cell (organelles, nucleus, plasma membrane).
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