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Second Continental Congress
Philadelphia May 10, 1775, all 13 colonies arrived, purpose: new appeals to king
Congress chose Washington to head army in Boston, political reasons: from Virginia, man of wealth so not a fortune-seeker, character: leadership, strength of character, moral force
war of inconsistency
April 1775 to July 1776- colonists were split between loyalty to the king and shooting the king's soldiers
Ticonderoga and Crown Point
May 1775- Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold captured British garrisons and secured priceless store of gunpowder and artillery
June 1775- colonists seized Bunker hill where they threatened British army in Boston. British victory on account of the depletion of American supplies. yet gave them confidence- It pushed Americans towards a final decision for war.
Olive Branch Petition
last ditch effort at peace that proclaimed American loyalty to the crown, begging king to prevent further hostilities- failed
German troops that King George III hired when he proclaimed the colonies to be in rebellion on August 1775, angered colonists
General Benedict Arnold
Montgomery was joined at Quebec by Arnold, assault on Quebec was beaten off, Montgomery was killed, and Arnold injured, eventually turned traitor- but was caught
Virginia town of Norfolk
British set fire to this town in 1776, then in March were forced to leave Boston
1776 wrote Common Sense, convinced American colonies that their true cause was independence not reconciliation with Britain, also supported the idea of a "republic"
power from the people, individuals in republic must sacrifice personal interest to public good
Declaration of Independence
Thomas Jefferson wrote this on July 4, 1776, talked about the natural rights of humankind (king denied these rights), French Declaration of the Rights of Man were made 13 years later based on this
colonials loyal to the king (Tories)- 16% of population, people of education + wealth, older generation, Anglican clergy, (Loyalists were roughly handled, imprisoned, and a few hung, many estates were confiscated and sold)
Battle of Long Island
Washington and an army escaped to Manhattan Island then to Delaware River, British general Howe did not crush American forces speedily, battle continued at Trenton (see Trenton)
December 26, 1776- Washington captured 1000 Hessians after stealthily crossing back on the Delaware
The Scheme for Capturing the Hudson River Valley
British General John Burgoyne would push down the Lake Champlain route from Canada, General Howe's troops in New York could meet Burgoyne near Albany, Colonel Barry St. Legor could come in from the west by Lake Ontario and Mohawk Valley
attack on Philadelphia
British General Howe attacked Philadelphia, Washington sent troops in 1777 to Philadelphia but was defeated at Brandywine Creek and Germantown
Burgoyne who was struggling through the north of Albany got trapped, forced to surrender in October 17, 1777 to American Horatio Gates- secured French aid and revived colonial cause
guide American commissioners (no political connection, no military connection, only commercial connection)
1780 Catherine the Great of Russia made this where all the remaining European neutrals maintained an attitude of passive hostility towards Britain
Carolina campaign of 1781
General Nathaniel Green- strategy of delay- succeeded in clearing Georgia and South Carolina from the British
Treaty of Fort Stanwix
1784, Indians (Senecas, Mohawks, Cayuhas, and Onondagas) forced to cede land because they were allies of George III
George Rogers Clark 1778-1779
captured British forts Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and Vincennes in the Illinois country
American privately owned armed ships who were authorized by Congress to prey on enemy shipping- captured 600 British prizes
Yorktown and Cornwallis
Cornwallis fell back to Yorktown to wait for seaborne supplies, Admiral de Grasse joined Washington to attack Yorktown (Washington by land, de Grasse by sea), Cornwallis surrendered 7000 men on 12/19/1781
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