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IB ESS Topic 1.1-1.3
Terms in this set (27)
Environmental Value Systems (EVSs)
a particular worldview or set of paradigms that shapes the way individuals or societies perceive and evaluate environmental issues
a nature-centred value system that views people as being under nature's control rather than in control of it.
a human-centred value system that places human as the central species and assesses the environment from an exclusively human perspective.
a technologically-based value system that believes the brain power of humans will enable us to control the environment.
a way of visualizing a complex set of interactions in ecology, society or another system.
is defined as an assemblage of parts and the relationships between them that enables them to work together to form a functioning whole.
-exchanges both matter and energy within its surrounding across the boundaries of the system
-plants fix energy from light
-nitrogen is fixed by bacteria
-forest fires expose topsoils
-energy exchanged, matter exchanged
-exchanges energy but not matter across the boundaries of the system.
- energy exchanged, matter not exchanged
exchanges neither energy nor matter with its environment.
-energy not exchanged, matter not exchanged
involve flow through a system and involve a change in location.
-water moving from a river to the sea
-carnivores eating other animals
-ocean currents transferring heat
Flows and storages
-Energy and matter flow as inputs and outputs or are stored
first law of thermodynamics
Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
- a measure of the evenness of energy distribution in a system. It is also defined as a measure of the disorder of a system; the greater the disorder, the higher the level of entropy.
Solar= efficiency is 1-2%
Herbivores= assimilate 10%
Carnivores= efficiency is 10%
Second Law of Thermodynamics
In isolated systems entropy tend to increase.
lead to an interaction within a system and the formation of a new end product, or they may involve a change of state.
-matter to matter
-energy to energy (light to heat energy)
-energy to matter (photosynthesis)
-useful energy, the work or output produced by the process divided by the energy consumed to the process
a state of balance among the components of a system.
(also known as dynamic equilibrium) is a stable form of equilibrium that allows a system to return to its steady state after a disturbance.
- A water tank emptying at the same rate it fills
-constant body temperature
a type of equilibrium in which there are no changes over time because there are no inputs to and outputs from the system
a state of equilibrium in which a system that is disturbed returns to its former position.
a state of equilibrium in which a small disturbance produces a large change and a new and different equilibrium.
is the return of part of the output from a system as input, so as to affect succeeding outputs.
a feedback which results in a change in the system that leads to more and greater change. It amplifies or increases change and leads to exponential deviation away from an equilibrium and thus destabilizes the system.
-getting colder and beginning to shiver, it doesn't raise the temperature enough, becomes sleepy and gets colder
a feedback which tends to damp down or counteract any deviation from any equilibrium and promotes stability. It stabilizes the system to eliminate any deviation from the preferred conditions.
-getting hot and starting to sweat
the minimum amount of change within a system that will destabilize it and cause it to reach a new equilibrium or stable state.
-changes are long lasting
-changes are hard to reverse
-the tendency of a system to maintain stability and resist tipping points.
Factors that increase a systems resiliency
Biodiversity, genetic diversity, larger size, less human impact
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