281 terms

AP Music Theory Midterm Exam Vocab

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Cadence
rhythmic or harmonic progression that indicates the end of a phrase or section
Cadential Extension
elongation of a cadence in a phrase
Coda
a passage which concludes a piece of music
Codetta
a brief coda or segment between themes of a fugue
Contour
shape of the melody, either rising or falling
Countermelody
a subordinate or secondary melody that accompanies the principal melody
Elision
Omission of sounds or syllables; occurs when the chords move towards tonic but skip one or more classes
Fragment
segmented subdivisions of a musical idea
Introduction
passage or section that opens or sets up a movement or separate piece that precedes the theme or lyrics
Bridge
contrasting section that prepares for a return to the original section or chorus
Chorus (pop music)
line/lines that are repeated in a musical piece or in verse
turnaround
transitional passage at the end of a section that leads into the next section; following section is commonly the repetition of a previous section
twelve-bar blues
one of the most significant chord progressions; has a distinctive form in terms of lyrics, phrase, chord structure, and duration; comprised chiefly of I-IV-V chords
Augmentation
compositional device in which a melody, theme, or motif is presented in longer note-values than were previously featured; also refers to the proportional elongation of individual note-shapes' note value in older notation by way of coloration, use of a sign of proportionality, or a notational symbol such as a modern dot
Conjunct
stepwise melodic movement, predominantly moving by step in intervals of a 2nd
Diminuition
shortening of the length value of the notes in order to change the melody without altering the pieces
Disjunct
interval larger than a consecutive step; skip
Extended version
occurs when a motive, melody, or phrase is lengthened, or when a pitch is added to a triad or seventh chord
Fragmentation
use of fragments, or the division of a musical idea- such as a gesture, motive, or theme- commonly used as a method of localized development and closure
Internal expansion
a phrase that is extended for longer than the expected length
Literal repetition
repetition of a musical passage indicated by the use of a repeat sign or instructions da capo or dal segno
Motivic transformation
an alteration in rhythmic theme
Octave displacement
occurs when some of the notes of a melodic line are moved into a different octave
Retrograde
refers to a motion in which the melodic line is performed backwards
Sequence
immediate repetition of a motif or longer melodic/harmonic passage at a lower or higher pitch in the same voice; pattern repeated immediately in the same voice but in a different pitch class
Sequential repetition
transposition of a longer sequence into a different scale degree; may be diatonic or intervalically exact
Shortened version
abbreviated rendition of a phrase or device already featured in a piece
transposition
act of transposing a piece of music, or setting a piece to a different key
truncation
motivic transformation comprised of "subtraction"
motive
short pattern comprised of 3-5 notes that is repeated in a composition
period
two or more phrases that comprise an antecedent-consequent relationship; ended with a cadence
antecedent
the first phrase in a period; the "question" portion of the phrase relationship
consequent
the succeeding/terminal phrase in a period; the "answer" portion of the phrase relationship
contrasting period
period in which the beginning of the phrases are dissimilar
double period
period that has two antecedents and two consequent phrases; ends with a conclusive cadence (a|b|a|b'||)
parallel period
a period in which both phrases begin in a similar manner or with similar material
phrase group
group of three or more phrases linked without the two-part feeling of a period
refrain
a group of lines that are repeated in a song
small forms
Short, simple forms, such as rounded binary and simple ternary
binary form
musical form composed of two related sections, one or both of which are typically repeated
rounded binary
two sections, returns to A in the second section (|:A:|:B:A:|) (typical of late Baroque dances and of minuets/scherzos/trios of the Classical period)
ternary
ABA, with new material in the middle section followed by a return to the first A material
solo, soli
a piece, section, or part that is played or sung by one performer
strophic
occurs when all of the verses or choruses of a piece are sung to the same music
theme
material in a piece of music, typically a recognizable melody, upon which part or all of a composition is based
thematic transformation
occurs when a leitmotif or theme is developed via alteration of the theme through permutation, augmentation, diminuition, and fragmentation
through-composed
music that is completely non-repetitive, not interrupted by dialogue, or composed in linear order
tutti
all voices or instruments together
variation
technique in which material is repeated in an altered form; alteration may involve harmony, melody, counterpoint, rhythm, timbre, orchestration, or any combination of the former atributes
verse
poetic stanza; occurs when two or more sections of a song have different lyrics but the same music
common tone modulation
Pivoting on a tone that is common to both keys
phrase modulation
change in the key of a piece that takes place at the beginning of a phrase
pivot chord modulation
chord appearing in the middle of a phrase that serves as a transition from the former key to the new one
Neighboring chord
chord situated a half step away from the chord it approaches
Rate of harmonic change
rate at which the chords or harmony change in a piece
Retrogression
occurs when the chord proceeds in ascending order
Secondary dominant (applied dominant, applied chord)
dominant-function harmony applied to a chord other than tonic; usually includes chromatic alterations relative to the tonic key
Secondary leading tone chord
a leading tone chord that serves as an applied or secondary dominant; is usually a fully diminished seventh chord
Tonicization
occurs when a pitch other than tonic is temporarily treated as such through the use of the scale and harmonies of the tonicized pitch
Anticipation
unaccented non-chordal tone that occurs when a note is played before the chord in which it belongs; resolves when the anticipated chord is reached
Appoggiatura
grace note played before a note in the melody while falling on the beat
Embellishment
an ornament note or melodic decoration
Escape tone (échapeé)
unaccented incomplete neighbor tone; approached stepwise from a chord tone and resolved via a skip in the opposite direction back to harmony
Neighboring tone
unaccented nonchord tone that passes stepwise from a chord tone that is directly above or below it; also called an auxiliary note
double neighbor
two nonchord (passing) tones that are before the resolution
lower neighbor
neighboring tone that is a step lower than the surrounding chord tones
upper neighbor tone
neighboring tone that is a step higher than the surrounding chord tones
ornament tone
flourishes that serve to decorate a melodic or harmonic line
Pedal point
sustained tone (typically in the bass) in which a foreign/dissonant harmony is surrounded by the other parts at least once
Preparation
treatment of a dissonant tone in which the consonant pitch or chord precedes a dissonant nonchord/nonharmonic tone; tone that precedes the suspension which has the same pitch
Resolution (non-harmonic tone)
movement of a dissonant/unstable note or chord to a consonant/stable one; tone or chord to which a dissonance is resolved; tone following a suspension, or the 2nd below it
Retardation (nonharmonic tone)
form of suspension that is resolved via upwards motion
suspension
approach by the same tone via left by one step down
rearticulated suspension
suspension that is rearticulated on the beat
suspension chain
the resolution of one suspension serves the predecessor for another subsequent suspension
Alto
voice or instrument part that is below the highest part and above the tenor
Bass
lowest part or tone
Closed position
space of less than an octave exists between the soprano and tenor
doubling
assigning the same pitch to two parts
second inversion
voicing of a triad in which the fifth is in the bass
open position
space of an octave or more exists between the soprano and tenor
root
tonic note of a chord, or the note upon which the other notes in a chord are stacked
root position
triad that has the root in the bass
second inversion
voicing of a triad in which the lowest note is moved up on the octave
soprano
highest singing/musical part
tenor
highest male vocal part
third inversion
occurs when the seventh of a seventh chord is the bass
common tone
tone/pitch that is found between two chords
contrary motion
occurs when the voices move in different directions
cross relation (false relation)
a harmonic clash that occurs when a note in one part occurs at the same time as or immediately before its chromatic alteration in another part
crossed voices (voice crossing)
occurs when a lower voice part is placed above a higher part or vice versa
direct fifths (hidden fifths)
outer parts move in the same direction into a perfect fifth with a leap in the soprano
direct octaves (hidden octaves)
outer parts move in the same direction into a perfect octave with a leap in the soprano
oblique motion
motion in which one voice remains the same while the other moves
overlapping voices
crossed voices
parallel motion
when two or more parts move in the same direction and intervals (i.e parallel 5ths)
parallel intervals
movement in two or more parts consisting of the same interval in the same direction
objectionable parallels
occurs when two parts separated by a perfect fifth/octave, or by their octave equivalents, move to new pitch classes by the same interval
parallel fifths
occurs when a perfect fifth interval is followed/played at the same time as a different perfect fifth between the same two musical parts/voices
parallel octaves
occurs when a perfect octave is followed/played at the same time as a different perfect octave between the same two musical parts/voices
similar (direct) motion
two voices move in the same direction by different intervals
tendency tone
a harmonically or melodically unstable tones that is naturally inclined to resolve itself either upward or downward
unresolved leading tone
leading tone that doesn't resolve to tonic
unresolved seventh
seventh that doesn't resolve downward
voice exchange
the repetition of a contrapuntal passage in which the voices' parts are exchanged
arpeggio, arpeggiation
notes of a chord that are played successively, either ascending or descending
chromatic
motion by semitones/half-steps
common practice style
compositional techniques and harmonic language of and/or relating to the Baroque, Classical, and Romantic eras
consonance
stable harmonic combination, usually comprised of 3rds
diatonic
of or involving notes belonging to a particular key without chromatic key
dissonance
unstable harmonic combination, usually comprised of 2nds and 7ths
figured bass
form of musical notation in whcih numerals and symbols are used to indicate intervals, chords, and non-chord tones in relation to the bass note
flatted fifth
diminished fifth
lead sheet
form of musical notation that specifies the elements of a piece of music (i.e. key, melody, harmony, lyrics); harmony is specified with chord symbols placed above the staff
picardy third
occurs when a minor piece ends in a major key
resolution
movement from dissonance to consonance
compound interval
interval greater in value than an octave
half step (semitone)
smallest interval distance possible in Western music
interval
difference or distance between two pitches
tritone
interval comprised of three consecutive whole notes
unison (prime)
two or more parts sounding the same pitch or at an octave interval
whole step (whole tone)
comprised of two half steps (semitones)
antiphonal
to be sung, recited, or played simulatenously by two groups/ensembles
articulation
performance technique that affects the transition or continuity of a note or between multiple notes/sound
arco
to be played with the bow
legato
indicates that the music should be played in a smooth, flowing manner
marcato
indicates that a note should be played with emphasis
pizzicato
plucking the strings of a violin or other stringed instrument
slur
symbol that is used to notate that the notes it encompasses are to be played legato
staccato
notes that are detached and sharply distinct from one another
tenuto
indicates that a note is to be held for its full time value or longer
call and response
succession of two phrases typically played by different musicians
crescendo
increase in tempo or loudness
diminuendo
decrease in tempo or loudness
terraced dynamics
sudden and dramatic shift from loud to soft or soft to loud
pianissimo
very soft
piano
soft
mezzo piano
medium soft
mezzo forte
medium loud
forte
loud
fortissimo
very loud
improvisation (improvisatory)
act of immediate musical composition; combines performance with emotive expression, instrumental technique, and spontaneous response to other musicians
Phrasing
practices concerning the grouping of consecutive melodic notes in composition and performance
Tempo
speed or pace of a piece of music
Adagio
slowly and stately (60-72 bpm))
Allegro
fast, quickly, and bright (120-128 bpm)
Andante
walking pace (84-90 bpm)
Andantino
slightly slower than andante (72-80 bpm)
Grave
very slow (25-40 bpm)
largo
broadly
lento
slowly (45-50 bpm)
moderato
moderately (96-108 bpm)
presto
extremely fast (168-200 bpm)
vivace
lively and fast (132-144 bpm)
accelerando
gradual increase in tempo
ritardando
gradual decrease in tempo
ritenuto
immediate reduction in tempo
rubato
temporarily ignoring the set tempo in order to allow for a brief, emotive quickening or slackening without changing the whole piece
accent
placement of emphasis on a note; results from context or is indicated via accent marks
agogic accent
emphasis through having longer duration
dynamic accent
use of louder sound to provide emphasis
metrical accent
placed on a strong beat, such as the first beat
anacrusis (pickup; upbeat)
unaccented beat preceding an accented beat
asymmetrical meter
meter that has a mixture of two and three-part beat divisions
bar line
placed on the staff to indicate divisions in time
beat
primary accent or rhythmic unit
beat type
how the beat is divided or grouped
compound meter
meter in which the beat is divided intro three groups
simple meter
meter in which the beat is divided into two groups
changing meter (multimeter)
meter that regularly varies between measures; can be indicated by a double time signature
cross rhythm
conflicting rhythmic patterns/meter played at the same time, as in three against four or 3/4 against 4/4
dotted rhythm
rhythm composed of a beat that is unequally divided into a long dotted note and a short note
duplet
group of two notes that is equivalent to the duration of three notes of the same type
duration
quantity of time for which a note is played or held
hemiola
two groups of three beats are substituted by three groups of two in order to imitate a shift between duple and triple meter
irregular meter
synonymous with asymmetrical meter
meter
rhythmic structure
duple meter
division of the beats into two groups
quadruple meter
division of beats into four groups
triple meter
division of beats into three groups
note value
indicates the relative duration of time for which a note is held
polyrhythm
two or more different rhythms are used simultaneously
pulse
composed of a beats repeating series of identical periodic stimuli observed in points of time
rhythm
strong, regularly repeated pattern of sound or movement
swing rhythm
lilting rhythm comprised of unequal notes
syncopation
disturbance or interruption of the flow of a rhythm; placement of stresses or accents in unusual places
tie
curved line that connects two notes of the same pitch and name in order to indicate that they are to be played as a single note
time signature (meter signature)
notation used to indicate meter; top number is the number of beats per measure, while the bottom indicate the note value of the beat
triplet
three successive notes that have equal duration
accidental
note that has a pitch class that is not diatonic of the most recently applied key signature
chromatic (chromaticism)
interspersion of the primary diatonic pitches and chords with other pitches of the chromatic scale
dorian mode
mode featuring a Whole, Half, Whole, Whole, Whole, Half, Whole arrangement; similar to a natural minor, but the 6th is different
phrygian mode
similar to the Aeolian scale, only differing in that its second scale degree is a semitone lower
lydian mode
modal scale comprised of WWWHWWH
mixolydian mode
mode that has the same tones and semitones as the major scale, only with the seventh lowered by a semitone
aeolian mode
synonymous with the natural minor scale
locrian mode
mode or diatonic scale in which the tonic triad is diminished
modality
modal quality
tetrachord
scale of four notes with the first and last notes spanning an interval of a perfect 4th
tonal
relating to or comprised of tones
tonality
manner in which the key influences the style or character in which a piece is played; relationship between the notes of scale or key
whole-tone scale
scale composed of only whole step intervals; hexatonic scale
lyrics
set or arrangement of words to which a piece of music (song) is set
melismatic
refers to the style in which single syllables are sung for the duration of two or more notes
stanza
a series of lines arranged together, typically in the form of a pattern of meter and rhyme; poem set with a repeated pattern of rhyme and meter
syllabic
style in which each syllable of text is matched to an individual note
alberti bass
broken chord or arpeggiated accompaniment in which the chord notes are presented in the order of lowest, highest, middle, highest; pattern is repeated
canon
contrapuntal compositional technique in which a melody and one or more imitations of the melody are played after a given duration of time
canonic
of or relating to canon form
chordal accompaniment
subordinate musical performance used to support a melodic line
contrapuntal
of or relating to two or more independent melodic lines
counterpoint
the relationship between voices that are harmonically interdependent, but are independent in terms of rhythm and contour
Heterophony
Multiple parts playing the same basic melody, albeit with some variations
Homophony
Texture in which all parts follow the same melody
Chordal homophony
Same rhythm and/or melody is sung by all parts
Chordal texture
Chordal spacing
Melody with accompaniment
most common texture in Western music; comprised of one part that has the melody with the other parts forming a background of harmonic accompaniment
Instrumentation
Instruments used in a piece of music (and/or how they are used)
Brass
Wind instrument made of brass
Continuo
Accompaniment that includes a bass line and harmonies
Percussion
Musical instruments played by striking with a hand or stick/beater or by shaking
Rhythm section
group of musicians that provide the underlying pulse or rhythm of a piece
Strings
Instruments that produce sound through vibrating strings
Timbre
Character or quality of a musical sound
Woodwind
Wind instruments other than brass instruments
Obbligato
Instrumental part that should not be omitted from the piece
Ostinato
Continually repeated motive or pattern
Register
Range of a voice or instrument
Tessitura
Range within which most of the notes of a vocal range fall
Imitative polyphony
Lines played together using the same or similar melodies, with the second succeeding shortly after the first
Nonimitative polyphony
Two distinct melodies that are harmonious when performed contrapuntally
Fugal imitation
Imitates the subject which enters at a different pitch level (usually the fourth or fifth)
Countermelody
A secondary melody that accompanies the primary one
Imitation
Repetition of a melody in a polyphonic texture shortly after it appears in a piece
Harmonic minor
Minor scale with raised seventh
Melodic minor
Raised seventh and sixth ascending, natural minor descending
Natural minor
WHWWWH
Aria
Lengthy accompanied piece intended for a solo vocalist
Art song
vocal composition typically written for one voice with a piano accompaniment
Interlude
a piece of music played between pieces or verses of a hymn
Opera
a dramatic work divided into acts that is set to music for vocalists and instrumentalists
Sonata
A composition intended for an instrumental soloist
String quartet
Ensemble of four string musicians
Symphony
elaborate musical composition intended for a full orchestra that is typically comprises of four movements and at least one sonata
Postlude
concluding piece
Prelude
short introductory piece
Genre
Category that classifies musical pieces based on shared traditions and conventions
Concerto
composition intended for a solo instrument or instruments accompanied by an orchestra
Deceptive progression
V-vi
Authentic cadence
V-I; perfect if soprano is tonic and the chords are in root position
Conclusive cadence
Authentic and plagal cadences
Half Cadence
I-V
Plagal cadence
IV - I
Arabic numerals
denote intervals above the bass and hence indirectly indicate chord inversion; may indicate voice and/or nonharmonic tones
Roman numerals
Capital: major triads
Lowercase: minor triads
Capital w/ "+": augmented triad
Lowercase w/ "°": diminished triad
Triads
6: indicates a first inversion
6 4: indicates a second inversion
Major major seventh
Major triad + major seventh
Major minor seventh
Major triad + minor seventh
Minor minor seventh
Minor triad + minor seventh
Circle of fifths
Visual representation of the relationships between the 12 chromatic keys
Other figures
8-7 indicates melodic movement from an 8vr to a seventh above the bass
9-8, 7-6, 4-3 indicate suspension and melodic resolution
An accidental before an Arabic numeral indicates an alteration of the interval involved
A figure with a slash or a plus indicates that the note creating the interval in question is raised a half step
7
Root position 7th chord
°7
Fully diminished 7th chord
6 5
1st inversion (7th chord)
4 3
Second inversion (7th chord)
4 2
Third inversion (7th chord)
6
First inversion triad
6 4
Second inversion triad
Tonic
1
Supertonic
2
Mediant
3
Subdominant
4
Dominant
5
Submediant
6
Leading tone
7
Parallel key
Major and minor keys that share the same tonic note
Pentatonic
scale comprised of 5 tones and no half steps
Walking bass
a bass line that moves at a predominantly moderate pace, in equal note values, and stepwise up and down the scale
Progressive cadence
Deceptive and half cadences
Octave (scale degree)
8, 8ve
Stretto
In a fugue, overlapping entrances of the fugue subject in several voices simultaneously