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DM DLA 16: Digestion, Lactose Intolerance and Bile Salts
Terms in this set (45)
Digestion starts in the .... and continues in the stomach and Small intestine?
In the Mouth Carbohydrate digestion occurs by the action of Salivary ......?- cleaves ..... Glycosidic bonds of Starch and Glycogen and forms branched .....?
The enzyme ...... is used for Lipid digestion in the oral cavity?
Lingual lipase for lipid digestion is released in the oral cavity but is mainly swallowed.
In the Stomach the thought of food, sight, smell, taste, chewing and a full stomach increases the release of .... from the .... glands?
Gastrin leads to the release of ..... from parietal cells? The chief cells release ..... and .....?
HCl is a strong acid and functions in the ..... of food for quicker digestion? HCl destroys .... and ...... present in food?
HCl alters the conformation of ..... in order for it to cleave itself thus producing the active protease .... by autocatalytic activation?
Pepsin has a optimum pH of .... and cleaves .... bonds within the .... ?
Low levels of HCl can result from excessive ingestion of .... in individuals who use these drugs to treat acid reflux?
Low levels of HCl can lead to reduced activation of ...........
Pepsinogen to pepsin
-Less effective digestion of proteins
The digestion of Carbohydrates stops in the Stomach due to ........ which denatures ..... at low pH? Under the same acidic conditions the digestion of Proteins start via the action of ...?
Lipid digestion of TAGs with Medium-chain fatty acids is performed by .... and ... Lipases which degrade TAGs found in milk? Milk digestion generates free medium-chain fatty acids which are released into the portal vein and reach directly the .... for energy metabolism?
When the Acidic Chyme reaches the Duodenum it results in the release of .... and .... which cause the pH to become neutralized?
CCK functions in stimulating the release of .... from the Gallbladder, the secretion of ...... enzymes, zymogens and other proteins? CCK also activates the enzyme ..... in the Duodenum?
Inhibition of Gastric motility which allows pH change of the acidic chyme in the duodenum using
carbonic acid and alkaline bile
Once Trypsin is formed it proteolytically activates the following zymogens for protein digestion: -trypsinogen to ...... , Chymotrypsinogen to ......, Proelastase to ...... and Procarboxypeptidases to ......?
For Lipid digestion Trypsin also activates -Prophospholipase A2 to ...... and Procolipase to ..... ?
Digestive enzymes in the small intestine.
Lactose Intolerance can cause Pain, Nausea, Flatulence and Diarrhea upon digestion of food containing ...?
Lactose is a milk sugar which is cleaved by the brush border enzyme ......?
Sucrase-isomaltase and maltase-glucoamylase are usually present at higher levels than lactase.
What are the 2 Lactase phenotypes?
1- Lactase nonpersistence phenotype:
2- Lactase persistence phenotype:
In the Lactase nonpersistence phenotype -The .... gene for Lactase is gradually .... expressed after infancy which occurs in most humans?
In the Lactase Persistence phenotype Lactase is controlled by the regulatory element ....?- inherent changes of this element leads to ...... Lactase synthesis?
Lactase deficiency leads to lactose reaching the .....?- has many bacteria which degrade Lactose to ..... active compounds and during this process form ...... which causes Abdominal cramps, bloating and flatulence?
Osmotic diarrhea results from .... coming from the mucosal cells that enters the lumen of the......?
- 1L extracelluar fluid lost per one glass of milk
To avoid symptoms of Lactose Intolerance the diet should be low in ..... and should not include .... products?
eg: Milk , Ice cream
•Some aged Cheese or yogurt may be ingested
•Lactose-free products and lactase pill are available.
Lactase nonpersistence (..........) is also known as ...........?
Disaccharidase deficiency, also known as ..........., can result from intestinal deficiency of the .... cells?
........ lactase deficiency is the most severe form of Lactose intolerance and is very rare?
Primary lactose intolerance
Secondary lactose intolerance
In Lactose Nonpersistance (Primary lactose intolerance) the amount of lactase is strongly reduced at about .... years of age in the majority of humans?
Primary lactose intolerance (Adult hypolactasia) is very common in the US in individuals of Asian, African or Native American heritage
Secondary Lactose Intolerance can occur due to loss or damage of intestinal .... cells (Food poisoning)? Severe ....or .... due to rotavirus can lead to intestinal injury?
All disaccharidases are affected, but lactase is usually the first activity lost and the last to recover
Celiac disease is immune mediated causing damage to the intestinal ..... in response to ..... ?
Gluten (protein found in grains)
Congenital lactase deficiency leads to severe
osmotic .... and .... in the baby? The baby cries due to the painful ... which is often mistaken for hunger?Feeding with milk continues to cause pain and damage.
These neonates need lactose-free formula as main food source
Lactase activity is normally the highest after birth as it is needed for digestion of milk (the main nutrient).
Lipid digestion and absorption in the small intestine needs ...... which are formed from ........ in hepatocytes?
Bile acids are formed from ..... and are .....? Bile acids have a pKa of ...?
Amphipathic (have a hydrophobic and hydrophillic part)
Only the ... uses free Cholesterol for the de-novo synthesis of bile acids?
What is the Rate limiting enzyme for Bile synthesis?
Cholesterol 7-alpha Hydroxylase
-It is a cytochrome P450 enzyme and it uses free cholesterol to form bile acids
Bile acid vs Bile Salt
Hepatic (Liver) conjugation of Bile acids with ..... or .... changes the pKa and leads to the formation negatively charged molecules called ..... which are then released into the Bile?
Bile salts .... dietary Lipids in the Duodenum, Jejunum and Ileum? In the Terminal ileum bile salts are ..... by bacteria to bile acids and to Glycine and Taurine
Primary bile acids are synthesized in hepatocytes using free ....? .... modify the structure of these primary bile acids to generate Secondary bile acids?
What are the 2 Primary Bile acids?
1- Cholic acid
2- Chenodeoxycholic acid
What are the 2 Secondary Bile acids?
1- Deoxycholic acid
2- Lithocholic acid
The Liver conjugates primary and secondary bile acids and releases primary and Secondary bile .... into the bile?
95% of Bile acids/salts are reabsorbed at the terminal .... and reach the Liver via the ..... vein?
The Liver releases Bile salts into bile .... and the bile reaches the duodenum? A small amount of free ..... is released into the bile and is mainly released in feces?
Reminder: Only the liver is involved with the following
Practice Q- Explanation
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