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thread like structures made of DNA that contain genes

The threadlike structures made largely of DNA molecules are called


DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)

complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up chromosomes

has two strands forming a double bound helix held together by bonds between pairs of nucleotides

When the mother's egg and the fathers sperm unite, each contributes

23 chromosomes


biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes

a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein

Fraternal twins result when

two eggs are fertilized by two sperm

Identical twins

develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two creating two genetically identical organisms

Adoption studies seek to understand genetic influences on personality. They do this mainly by

Evaluating whether adopted children s personalities more closely resemble those of their adoptive parents

Fraternal Twins

Develop from separate eggs

genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share the fetal environment

Personality tends to be stable over time

Temperament seems to be biologically based and tends to remain stable throughout life.


A person's characteristic emotional re-activity and intensity (Chess & Thomas: 3 types : Easy, Slow to warm up and difficult

Evolutionary psychologists are most likely to focus on

natural selection of the fittest adaptions.


the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes and traditions shard by large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next

Natural levels of stimulation are important during infancy and early childhood because during these years

experience activates and preserves neural connections that might other wise die from disuse


an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior

Children and youth are particularly responsive to influences of their


Personal Space

the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies

Personal Space the portable buffer zone people like to maintain around their bodies differs from culture to culture, these differences are examples of

Cultural Norms


a set of expectations (norms) about a social position defining how those in the position ought to behave

Individualist cultures tend to value


Gender Role

A set of expected behaviors for males and females

collectivist cultures tend to value


Gender Identity

ones sense of being male or female

Human developmental processes tend to BE THE SAME
from one group to another because we are members of THE SAME SPECIES

Gender Typing

the acquisition of traditional masculine or feminine role

a fertilized egg will develop into a boy if it receives

a Y chromosome from its father

Gender role refers to our

expectations about the way males and females should behave

As a consequence of the gender assigned to us by society, we develop a gender identity which means that we

Have a sense of being male or femal

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