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CD Chapter 12 Moral Development
Berk. 9th Edition
Terms in this set (42)
is promoted by an overarching social organization that specifies rules for good conduct, but also has roots in each major aspect of our psychological make up, such as our emotional, cognitive, and behavioral components.
Adopting societal standards for right action as one's own. Societal standards, including Parental style of discipline, Child's characteristics, Parent's characteristics, and Child's view of both the misdeed and reasonableness of parental demands.
To maintain their parents' affection, children form a superego, or conscience, by identifying with the same-sex parent, whose moral standards they adopt.
Consciences formation is promoted by a type of discipline called induction, in which an adult helps the child notice others' feelings by pointing out the effects of the child's misbehavior on others, especially noting their distress and making clear that the child caused it.
Endorsement of moral values (such as fairness, kindness, and generosity) as central to their self-concept.
Two Perspectives on Morality of Social Norms
Psychoanalytic theory and social learning theory
Morality emerges between ages 3 and 6, the period of the well-known Oedipus and Electra conflicts. More importantly, guilt is an important motivator of moral action.
Clues of Success behind Induction
May form a script for negative emotional consequences of harming others, More likely to listen, accept and internalize the parent's message, Encourages empathy and sympathetic concern, which promotes prosocial behavior.
Parents of Impulsive Children
Can foster conscience development by building a warm, affectionate relationship that promotes secure attachment and by combining firm correction of misbehavior with induction.
Inducing empathy-based guilt (expressions of personal responsibility and regret, such as "I'm sorry.") by explaining that the child's behavior is causing someone distress is a means of influencing children without using coercion.
Social Learning Theory
Does not regard morality as a special human activity with a unique course of development. Rather, moral behavior is acquired just like any other set of responses: through reinforcement and modeling.
Observing and imitating adults who demonstrate appropriate behavior, such as warmth and responsiveness, competence and power, consistency between assertions and behavior.
Once children acquire a moral response, such as sharing or telling the truth, reinforcement in the form of praising the act or the child's character increases its frequency.
Effects of Punishment
Frequent punishment, however, promotes only immediate compliance, not lasting changes in behavior. Also, punishment models aggression, prompts a focus on the self's distress rather than a sympathetic orientation, leads to abuse due to the likelihood to punish with a greater frequency over time.
The use of physical force to inflict pain but not injury. Although corporal punishment spans the SES spectrum, its frequency and harshness are elevated among less educated, economically disadvantaged parents.
A technique that involves removing children from the immediate setting -- for example, by sending them to their rooms -- until they are ready to act appropriately.
Increasing Effective Punishments
Consistency (scolding on only some occasions leads to confusion), Warm parent-child relationship (regain parental warmth and approval as quickly as possible), and Explanations (providing reasons for mild punishment to help children relate misdeed to future behavior).
Disregards psychoanalytical and social learning theories as children's major mean to morality but through internalizing existing rules and expectations (developing through construction).
Actively attending to and interrelating multiple perspectives on situations in which social conflicts arise and thereby attaining new moral understandings. Basically, children make moral evaluations and decisions on the basis of concepts they construct about justice and fairness.
Piaget's Theory of Moral Development
Two broad stages of moral understanding: Heteronomous Morality (about 5-8 years) and Morality of Cooperation (about 9-10 years).
Suggests that children in the first stage view rules as handed down by authorities (God, parents, and teachers), as having a permanent existence, as unchangeable, and as requiring strict obedience.
Limitations of Moral Understanding
(1) Cognitive immaturity (not being able to imagine others's perspectives) and realism, (2) the power of adults to insist that children comply, which promotes unquestioning respect for rules and those who enforce them.
The tendency to view mental phenomena, including rules, as fixed external features of reality.
Morality of Cooperation
The second stage, in which children no longer view rules as fixed but see them as flexible, socially agreed-on principles that can be revised to suit the will of the majority.
The Golden Rule: "Do onto others as you would have them do unto you," is a grasp of the importance of mutuality of expectations, past regular reciprocity, "You scratch my back, I scratch yours."
Kohlberg's Moral Judgement Interview
An extension of Piaget's clinical interviews, but with a more open-ended approach: giving hypothetical moral dilemmas and asking what actor should do and why. (Heinz Dilemma) Uses the WAY that and individual reasons about the dilemma.
Reflection Measure-Short Form (SRM-SF)
Asks individuals to evaluate the importance of moral values and to reason about them. For more efficient gathering and schooling of moral reasoning, researchers haves devised this questionnaire.
Kohlberg's 6 Stages of Moral Understanding
Pre-conventional level (1. punishment and obedience orientation 2. instrumental purpose orientation), Conventional level (3. morality of interpersonal cooperation 4. the social-order maintaining orientation), and Post-conventional level (5. the social-contract orientation 6. universal ethical principle orientation) pg. 500
Morality is external controlled. Children accept the rules of authority figures and judge actions by their consequences. Behaviors that result in punishment are viewed as bad, those that lead to rewards as good. (1. realism 2. reciprocity)
Individuals continue to regard conformity to social rules as important, but not for reasons of self-interest. Rather, they believe that actively maintaining the current social system ensures positive human relationships and societal order. (3. good person 4. societal laws)
Post Conventional Level
or Principal Level, individuals move beyond questioning support for the laws and rules of their own society. They define morality in terms of abstract principles and values that apply to all situations and societies. (5. interpreting law 6. abstract)
Influences on Moral Reasoning
Personality (social participation), Child-rearing practices (prosocial behavior encouragement), Schooling (beyond social relationships), Peer Interaction (cooperation between equals), and Culture (kibbutzim)
Domain Approach of Moral Understanding
Focuses on children's developing capacity to distinguish and coordinate Moral Imperatives from two other types of social rules and expectations: Social conventions and Matters of personal choice. (Overtime, strengthening conviction choices are left to the individual)
Protects people's rights and welfare.
Customs determined solely by consensus, such as table manners and rituals of social interaction.
Matters of Personal Choice
Friends, hairstyle, and leisure activities, which do not violate rights and are up to the individual.
Self control, first, appears in the form of toddlers's clear awareness of caregivers' wishes and expectations and can obey simple requests and commands.
Delay of Gratification
Waiting for an appropriate time and place to engage in a tempting act.
A flexible capacity for the ability to monitor one's own conduct, constantly adjusting it as circumstances present opportunities to violate inner standards
Proactive (Instrumental) Aggression
Children act to fulfill a need or desire -- obtain an object, privilege, space, or social reward, such as adult attention or peer admiration -- and unemotionally attack a person to achieve their goal.
Reactive (Hostile) Aggression
An angry, defensive response to provocation or a blocked goal and is meant to hurt another person.
Forms of Proactive and Reactive Aggression
Physical aggression, verbal aggression, and relational aggression.
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