How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

19 terms

Psychology Chapter 1

STUDY
PLAY
psychology
is the scientific study of human behavior and mental processes.
behavior
is any action that people can observe or measure.
cognitive activities
are mental processes.
psychological constructs
used to talk about something we cannot see, touch, or measure directly.
theory
is a statement that attempts to explain why things are the way they are and why they happen the way they do.
principle
is a basic truth or law, such as the assumption that you will get better grades if you study more.
psychiatrist
is a medical doctor who specializes int he treatment of psychological problems and who can prescribe medication for clients.
basic research
is research that has no immediate application and is done for its own sake.
introspection
learning much about ourselves by carefully examining our own thoughts and feelings.
associationism
the theory that our understanding of the world occurs through ideas associated with similar sensory experiences and perceptions.
structuralism
the school of psychology, founded by Wilhelm Wundt, that maintains that conscious experience breaks down into objective sensations and subjective feelings.
functionalism
the school of psychology, founded by William James, that emphasizes the purposes of behavior and mental processes and what they accomplish for the individual
psychoanalysis
the school of psychology, founded by Sigmund Freud, that emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives and internal conflicts as determinants of human behavior.
psychodynamic thinking
the theory that most of what exists in an individual's mind is unconscious and consists of conflicting impulses, urges, and wishes.
behaviorism
the school of psychology, founded by John Watson, that defines psychology as the scientific study of observable behavior.
Gestalt psychology
the school of psychology that emphasizes the tendency to organize perceptions of individual parts into meaningful wholes.
cognitive perspective
the perspective that emphasizes the role of thought processes in determining behavior
learning perspective
the psychological perspective that emphasizes the effects of experience on behavior.
social-learning perspective
the theory that suggests that people can change their environment or create new ones.