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is the scientific study of human behavior and mental processes.


is any action that people can observe or measure.

cognitive activities

are mental processes.

psychological constructs

used to talk about something we cannot see, touch, or measure directly.


is a statement that attempts to explain why things are the way they are and why they happen the way they do.


is a basic truth or law, such as the assumption that you will get better grades if you study more.


is a medical doctor who specializes int he treatment of psychological problems and who can prescribe medication for clients.

basic research

is research that has no immediate application and is done for its own sake.


learning much about ourselves by carefully examining our own thoughts and feelings.


the theory that our understanding of the world occurs through ideas associated with similar sensory experiences and perceptions.


the school of psychology, founded by Wilhelm Wundt, that maintains that conscious experience breaks down into objective sensations and subjective feelings.


the school of psychology, founded by William James, that emphasizes the purposes of behavior and mental processes and what they accomplish for the individual


the school of psychology, founded by Sigmund Freud, that emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives and internal conflicts as determinants of human behavior.

psychodynamic thinking

the theory that most of what exists in an individual's mind is unconscious and consists of conflicting impulses, urges, and wishes.


the school of psychology, founded by John Watson, that defines psychology as the scientific study of observable behavior.

Gestalt psychology

the school of psychology that emphasizes the tendency to organize perceptions of individual parts into meaningful wholes.

cognitive perspective

the perspective that emphasizes the role of thought processes in determining behavior

learning perspective

the psychological perspective that emphasizes the effects of experience on behavior.

social-learning perspective

the theory that suggests that people can change their environment or create new ones.

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