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Psych Final Ch. 14-15
Terms in this set (97)
holds memories, emotions and thoughts, including irrational or socially unacceptable ones.
Use of psychoanalysis to determine how these are affecting our behavior
The Oedipus complex
Children wish to have sex with their opposite sex parent but realize that it is forbidden.
Development of the psychosexual stages leads to..
progression of conflicts about channeling sexual energy
The Oral Stage (The first year of life)
Psychosexual pleasure from the mouth
Fixation - problematic eating, substance abuse, etc.
The Anal Stage (About 1 to 3 years old)
Intense psychosexual pleasure derived from stimulation of the anal sphincter
Fixation-stinginess/orderliness or messiness/disorder
The Phallic Stage (About 3 to 6 years of age)
Psychosexual pleasure derives from stimulation of the genitals Fear of being castrated (boys) or penis envy (girls)
The Latent Period (About 6 years to adolescence)
Psychosexual interest is suppressed
The Genital Stage (Adolescence and beyond)
The individual has strong sexual interest in other people. Fixation - little libido later in life
biological drives that demand immediate gratification.
the rational, negotiating, and decision-making part of personality.
internalized values and rules from parents, institutions and society
"making excuses" and reframing unpleasant events or actions as beneficial or appropriate.
"motivated forgetting" of unacceptable thoughts and feelings
a return to juvenile behavior
refusal to acknowledge a problem
diversion of unacceptable thoughts or impulses from true targets to less threatening ones
showing thoughts or feelings extremely opposite of one's true ones
channeling sexual/aggressive energies into acceptable and pro-social behaviors
attributing one's own undesirable characteristics or motives to other people
Karen Horney believed that...
Freud exaggerated the role of sexuality in behavior and motivation, and misunderstood women's motivations and
dynamics of family relationships.
Carl Jung emphasized..
the continuity of experience and need for spiritual meaning.
Carl Jung proposed..
He proposed the existence of a "collective unconscious" reflecting the cumulative experiences of our ancestors.
• It contains archetypes- figures and themes emerging repeatedly across history and culture.
Alfred Adler founded
the school of "individual psychology."
Alfred Adler of an individual is..
"Individual"analyzes the person as a whole ,in contrast with the partitioned model at the heart of Freudianism.
•We seek personal excellence and fulfillment, and strive for superiority.
We have a plan for achieving these, a style of life.
• People who fail suffer from an inferiority complex, exaggerated feelings of inadequacy.
• Also concern ourselves with the welfare of others
A gender role is
psychological aspects of male/femaleness.
Reinforcements and punishments are given for..
correct/incorrect gender role behaviors.
Humanistic psychology deals with..
values, beliefs, and consciousness, including spirituality and guiding principles of living.
Humanistic psychologists see people as ..
Humanists study peak experiences, this is..
when we feel truly fulfilled
movement toward self actualization
We develop a self concept and ideal self, discrepancy between them causes distress
Unconditional positive regard
hierarchy of needs
The nomothetic approach..
identifies general laws describing aspects of personality influencing behavior.
The idiographic approach..
uses intensive case studies. It produces conclusions that can't be generally applied.
A temporary activation of particular behavior.
A consistent, long-lasting behavioral tendency - like
sociability, shyness or assertiveness.
The Big 5 Personality traits
• Openness to new experience
Criticisms of the Big Five description include:
• Based on study of the English language, not on observations of human behavior.
• There are too few traits included.
• There are too many traits included.
• It has limited applicability cross-culturally.
(Origins of Personallity- Environment )Unshared
Aspects of the environment that differ between family members (i.e., with each new birth, the family environment changes) and events or people who influence only one member.
(Origins of Personallity- Environment )Shared
Resemblance in personality between family members is stronger because not only genes are held in common but many aspects of the environment also.
(Origins of Personallity- Time) Age
The older a person is, the more consistent his or her
personality is over time.
The increased consistency as people age can be observed cross-culturally.
(Origins of Personallity- Time) Cohort
Anxiety levels appear to be increasing over the past few generations.
Profiles produced by popular and well-regarded personality assessment tools suffer to some extent from the ..
The most widely used personality test..
is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI).
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI).
Measure personality dimensions such as sociability and conscientiousness.
They may detect clinical conditions like depression and psychosis
Faking good/faking bad
Objective personality tests:
The NEO-PI-R & The MBTI
The NEO Personality Inventory
Revised based on the Big Five
•240 items intended to measure the five traits using a 5-point scale.
•It has good reliability and works well cross-culturally.
• Non-clinical personality inventory loosely based on Jungian theory.
•It is brief and easy to administer,and is very popular with businesses.
•Critics claim the types identified by the MBTI are subject to the Barnum effect.
Progective Techniques for personality assessments:
The Rorschach Inkblots & The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
The Rorschach Inkblots were developed by:
The Thematic Apperception Test is difficult
to research the TAT's validity and reliability.
Implicit personality tests:
The Emotional Stroop Test & The Implicit Association
The Emotional Stroop Test
A person looks at a list of words and say the color of thinking which each is printed.
The Implicit Association
•The assumption is related to "priming."-the subject responds faster to the categories that combine a topic with pleasant or unpleasant words.
•One advantage is that it is hard top"fake good"or malinger.
There is no clear definition of..
Cultural influences on abnormality
• An American example: Multiple Personality Disorder
The "split personality"syndrome,this is now called dissociative identity
Use to be rare in 50's, by 90's there were many cases.
classification and diagnostic tool. In the United States the DSM serves as a universal authority for psychiatric diagnosis.
- Each axis has 1 or multiple diagnoses
Clinical disorders are diagnosed on..
Axis 1. These involve deterioration of functioning.
Most common disorders are listed on Axis 1
Personality disorders and mental retardation
General medical conditions that influence mood or behavior
psychosocial problems that increase subjective level of stress.
is a 1-100 scale - the global assessment of functioning. The lower the number assigned, the less adaptive functioning appears to be.
Criticism: According to the DSM-5 criteria..
As much as 50% of the population has a diagnosable mental illness at some time
exposure under controlled
conditions. Virtual reality is utilized for this.
Flooding or implosion
a sudden and large-scale exposure under controlled conditions
are repetitive, unwelcome streams of thought
repetitive, almost irresistible actions. Ex. Checking & Cleaning
Addictive drugs stimulate the dopamine receptors in the..
Type I alcoholism
develops gradually, equally prevalent in men and
women, has less severe health consequences
Type II alcoholism
is early onset, it is more prevalent in men and more severe, strong genetic influence
is the trade name for disulfiram
Recovery programs offer methadone as a replacement for..
Cycling of mood between depressive episodes and manic
Bipolar I disorder involves
the experience of at least one episode of mania.
Bipolar II disorder involves
alternation between major depression and hypomania, a milder form of mania
(Depression treatments) Cognitive therapy helps..
people develop more positive beliefs
(Depression treatments) St. John's Wort:
an herb with antidepressant effects (use with other medications should be avoided.)
(Depression treatments) Electroconvulsive shock therapy (ECT) :
a well-known but controversial treatment
fell out of favor due to clinical abuse
used only for those who are strongly suicidal
What is schizophrenia?
Complete deterioration of daily activities and two of the following symptoms:
• Delusions or thought disorders
• Incoherent speech
• Grossly disorganized behavior
•Loss of normal emotional responses and social behaviors
2 broad patterns of symptoms: positive & negative.
4 types: undifferentiated, cationic, disorganized, and paranoid
How many americans are afflicted with schizophrenia?
about 1% - most frequently diagnosed in young adults, onset seems sudden, markers during childhood
Brain abnormalities in schizophrenia
•The hippo campus and cortical regions somewhat smaller than normal.
•Larger than normal cerebral ventricles.
•Smaller neurons and fewer synapses in the prefrontal cortex.
Neurodevelopment hypothesis of schizophrenia
Schizophrenia results from neurological impairments developed before or at birth.
• Non- genetic risk factors include:poor prenatal care, difficult pregnancy and labor, and mother's exposure to influenza virus
Antipsychotic or neuroleptic drugs help to relieve the symptoms of..
schizophrenia, work gradually and vary in effectiveness
Antipsychotics block the production of dopamine,supporting the..
hypothesis of schizophrenia
Tremors and involuntary movements result from long-term use of antipsychotics(suppress immune functioning)
Therapy gives direct support to healthy family members,Patients are helped by lessening negative familial reactions that increase likelihood of relapse
is a milder form of autism.
Those with disease can learn to function effectively in social situations.
They are less likely to be cognitively limited
treatment of psychological disorders by methods involving an ongoing relationship between a trained therapist and a client.
based on Freud's teachings; relate personality to the interplay of conflicting forces in the person
Free association and transference issued to..
bring unconscious material to consciousness; This releases pent-up emotions associated with unconscious thoughts and memories (catharsis.)
changes people's thoughts and beliefs about situations
assumes that thoughts precede emotions, and that unpleasant feelings result from irrational thoughts.
sets clear goals for changing behavior (like a behavioral therapist).
Emphasis is placed on interpretation of thoughts and events (similar to cognitive therapy).
Humanistic therapists believe that..
people strive to achieve full potential.
Most common humanistic therapy is person-centered therapy. Therapist listens to client non-judgmentally and provides positive regards. No advice offered.
Do not use a single method exclusively, but
Brief therapy models
The therapist and client make a contract specifying a specific length of times or number of meetings along with expectations and goals for the treatment
The M'Naghten rule
To be judged insane the person must be so disordered that he/she doesn't
understand what he/she has done.
Duty to Protect: The Tarasoff Case
If a client expresses harmful intent towards an identified individual/group a duty exists to break confidentiality on behalf of the object(s.)
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