Ch. 28: Promise and Turmoil, the 1960s
from the AMSCO AP US History book, 2015 edition
Terms in this set (91)
Election of 1960
Brought about the era of political television and televised debates. Between Kennedy and Nixon. Kennedy appeared more vigorous and comfortable than Nixon, and attacked Eisenhower for recession and allowing Soviets to win arms race. Kennedy won by a narrow margin.
John F. Kennedy
35th President of the United States, serving from 1961 until his death in 1963. Charismatic, wealthy, youthful senator from Massachusetts, vice president LBJ balanced ticket to Southern states. Pioneered the New Frontier, Space Program, Providing for poor, Warren Commission, Bay of Pigs Invasion, Cuban Missile Crisis and was assassinated in Dallas, Texas by Lee Harvey Oswald.
The campaign program advocated by JFK in the 1960 election. He promised to revitalize the stagnant economy and enact reform legislation in education, health care, and civil rights. Most of this legislation was passed under President JOhnson
was an American politician, a Democratic senator from New York, and a civil-rights activist, and also younger brother of John F. Kennedy and attorney general under his presidency. He ran for president in 1968 but was assassinated.
American first lady and wife of president Kennedy; she was known for her style and social grace; was used to create a favorable public opinion about his presidency.
race to the moon
the economy was stimulated under JFK by increased spending for defense and space exploration, as the president committed the nation to ___________.
assassination in Dallas
the Kennedys were going to Dallas to help Democrats, there was a nice reception for him and he and Jackie rode through town in an open car, Kennedy is November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas by Lee Harvey Oswald, the pursuit of whom glued millions of Americans to their televisions.
Commission made by LBJ after killing of John F. Kennedy. (Point is to investigate if someone paid for the assasination of Kennedy.) Conclusion is that Oswald killed Kennedy on his own. Commissioner is Chief Justice Warren.
(1961 - Kennedy) an organization that recruited young American volunteers to give technical aid to developing countries
Alliance for Progress
(1961 - Kennedy) promoted land reform and economic development in Latin America
Trade Expansion Act (1962)
(1961 - Kennedy) authorized tariff reductions with the recently formed European Economic Community (Common Market) of Western European nations.
Bay of Pigs
(1961) Kennedy's major blunder when first entered office, approved CIA scheme to use Cuban exiles to overthrow Fidel Castro's regime in Cuba, failed to set off uprising as planned, anti-Castro Cubans had to surrender and Kennedy didn't use US force to save them, Cuba got more $$ from USSR
August 1961 - Kennedy refused to take his troops out of Berlin. East Germans built this around West Berlin to stop East Germans from fleeing to West Germany, _________ served as a gloomy symbol of the Cold War until it was torn down by rebellious East Germans in 1989.
Cuban missile crisis (1962)
1962- US reconnaissance planes discovered that the Russians were building underground sites in ____ for the launching of offensive missiles that could reach the US in minute. Kennedy responded by setting up a naval blockade of ____ until the weapons were removed. Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles from ___ in exchange for Kennedy's pledge not to invade it and to remove missiles from Turkey
instead of massive retaliation and reliance on nuclear weapons, Kennedy and McNamara increased spending on conventional arms and mobile military forces, reducing risk of using nuclear weapons and increasing temptation to send elite special forces in combat all over the globe (Green Berets)
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
1963 - Soviet Union and the United States along with 100 other nations signed ________ to end the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere. This first step in controlling the testing of nuclear arms was offset by a new round in the arms race for developing missile and warhead superiority.
native of rural west Texas and graduate of a teacher's college, skilled politician, as 36th president determined to expand social reforms of the New Deal, pushed Congress to pass an expanded version of Kennedy's civil rights bill, and Kennedy's proposal for an income tax cut, sparking increase in jobs, consumer spending, and economic expansion
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the__________. In 1963-6, Congress passed many of these measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
War on Poverty
1964 - LBJ declared ____________ to provide greater social services for the poor and elderly, Office of Economic Opportunity established with a billion-dollar budget to achieve this goal
Michael Harrington, "The Other America"
best-selling book on poverty, helped focus national attention on the 40 million Americans still living in poverty
Election of 1964
Johnson and Hubert Humphrey went in with a liberal agenda against Repub Barry Goldwater of Arizona, a rightwing extremist. Johnson won by a landslide, democrats controlled both houses of Congress.
1964; Republican contender against LBJ for presidency; advocated ending the welfare state, including TVA and Social Security, quick to involve US in nuclear war. Lost by the biggest landslide in history, but energized many young conservatives.
1965 - provided health insurance for all people 65 and older
1965 - provided funds for states to pay for medical care for the poor and disabled
Elementary and Secondary Education Act (1965)
1965 - provided federal funds to poor school districts; funds for special education programs; and funds to expand Head Start, and early childhood education program
Immigration Act (1965)
1965 - abolished discriminatory quotas based on national origins
National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities
1965 - provided federal funding for the arts and for creative and scholarly projects
DOT (Department of Transportation) and HUD (Department of Housing and Urban Development)
Johnson established two new cabinets, the ________ and the ________ in order to increase funding for mass transit, public housing, rent subsidies for low-income people, and crime prevention
Ralph Nader, "Unsafe at Any Speed"
1965 - this book said that poor design and construction of automobiles were the major causes of highway deaths. It sparked Congress to pass regulations of the automobile industry that would save hundreds of thousands of lives in the following years.
Rachel Carson, "Silent Spring"
Clean air and water laws were enacted in part as a response to ____________, an exposé of DDT and other harmful pesticides. Federal parks and wilderness areas were expanded.
Lady Bird Johnson
LBJ's wife, contributed to improving the environment with her Beautify America campaign, which resulted in the Highway Beautification Act that removed billboards from federal roads.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
made segregation illegal in all public facilities, including hotels and restaurants, and gave the federal government additional powers to enforce school desegregation
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
set up by the Civil Rights Act of 1964, ending discrimination in employment on the basis of race, religion, sex, or national origin
1964 - the __________ was ratified, abolishing the practice of collecting a poll tax, a measure that discouraged poor people from voting
Voting Rights Act of 1965
after much brutality in Selma, AL against MLK Jr. and his marches, President Johnson passed the _________ ending literacy tests and provided federal registrars in areas where blacks were kept from voting, which was dramatic in the Deep South.
a young African American air force veteran who, in 1962, attempted to enroll in the University of Mississippi. A federal court guaranteed his right to attend, but Kennedy had to send 400 federal mar
Governor of Alabama 1963, tried to stop an African American student from entering the University of Alabama. He was also the first politician of the late-20th-century America to marshal the general resentment against the Washington establishment and the two-party system. He ran for president of a self-nominated candidate of the American Independent Party, unsuccessfully.
Martin Luther King Jr.
recognized nationally as part of the civil rights movement, committed to nonviolent protests, jailed in 1963 in Birmingham, AL which proved to be a milestone in the Civil Rights movement
March on Washington (1963)
August 1963 - led my Martin Luther King Jr., one of the largest and most successful demonstrations in US History, peaceful _______ in support of the civil rights bill, "I Have A Dream" speech
"I Have a Dream" speech
Highlight of the March on Washington demonstration, impassioned speech by MLK Jr., appealed for the end of racial prejudice and ended with crowd singing "We Shall Overcome"
March to Montgomery
a voting rights march from Selma, AL to the state capital, met with beatings and tear gas and became known as "Bloody Sunday," televised pictures of the violence proved to be a turning point in the CR movement
leader Elijah Muhammad, preached black nationalism, separatism, and self-improvement. Attracted thousands of followers, including Malcolm X.
became a convert to Islam while in prion, acquired a reputation as the movements most controversial voice, criticized King as subservient to whites and advocated self-defense, using black violence to counter white violence, assassinated by black opponents in 1965
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
leader was Stokely Carmichael; focused on black power and protesting the Vietnam War; played major role in the freedom rides and sit-ins
Congress of Racial Equality
Civil rights organization started in 1944 and best known for its "freedom rides," bus journeys challenging racial segregation in the South in 1961.
A black civil rights activist in the 1960's. Leader of the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee. He did a lot of work with Martin Luther King Jr.but later changed his attitude. Carmichael urged giving up peaceful demonstrations and pursuing black power. He was known for saying,"Black power will smash everything Western civilization has created."
A black political organization that was against peaceful protest and for violence if needed. The organization marked a shift in policy of the black movement, favoring militant ideals rather than peaceful protest.
Watts riots, race riots
shortly after the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, a young black motorist was arrested by a white policeman in the LA neighborhood of Watts, sparking a six-day _______ . These continued to erupt each summer in black neighborhoods of major cities through 1968 with increasing casualties and destruction of property.
de facto segregation
Racial segregation that occurs because of past social and economic conditions and residential racial patterns rather than the law, caused by racist attitudes in the North and West
11 member commission established by President Johnson to investigate causes of the race riots in the US, concluded in late 1968 that racism and segregation were chiefly responsible and that the US was becoming two separate but unequal societies.
King assassination (1968)
Apr. 1968 - MLK Jr., while standing on a motel balcony in Memphis, Tennessee, was shot and killed by a white man, sparking massive riots in cities across the country out of anger and frustration
the Supreme Court under Earl Warren from 1953 to 1969, made a series of decisions throughout the 1960s that profoundly affected the criminal justice system, state political systems, and the definition of individual rights, Brown v. Board of Education landmark ruling
Mapp v. Ohio
(1961) ruled that illegally seized evidence cannot be used in court against the accused
Gideon v. Wainwright
(1963) required that state courts provide counsel (services of an attorney) for indigent (poor) defendants
Escobedo v. Illinois
(1964) required the police to inform an arrested person of his or her right to remain silent
Miranda v. Arizona
(1966) extended the ruling in Escobedo to include the right to a lawyer being present during questioning by the policy
Process by which representative districts are switched according to population shifts, so that each district encompasses approximately the same number of people.
Baker v. Carr
(1962) made unconstitutional the practice of districting to the advantage of favored rural areas to the disadvantage of cities, equal representation for all citizens
"one man, one vote"
principle meaning that election districts would have to be redrawn to provide equal representation for all of states citizens
Yates v. United States
(1957) the 1st amendment protected radical and revolutionary speech, even by Communists, unless it was a "clear and present danger" to the safety of the community
separation of church and state
Idea that the government and religion should be separate, and not interfere in each other's affairs. This idea is based on the 1st Amendment, which states that the government cannot make any laws to establish a state religion or prohibit the free exercise of religion.
Engel v. Vitale
(1962) ruled that state laws requiring prayers and Bible readings in public schools violated the 1st Amendment's provision for the separation of church and state
Griswold v. Connecticut
(1965) ruled that, in recognition of a citizen's right to privacy, a state could not prohibit the use of contraceptives by adults
privacy and contraceptives
when these rights became fully guaranteed, they provided the foundation for a woman's right to abortion
Students for a Democratic Society
a campus-based political organization founded in 1961 by Tom Hayden that became an iconic representation of the New Left. Originally geared toward the intellectual promise of "participatory democracy," SDS emerged at the forefront of the civil rights, antipoverty, and anitwar movements during the 1960s
A new political movement of the late 1960s that called for significant changes to fight poverty and racism.
the most radical fringe of the SDS, embraced violence and vandalism in their attacks on American institutions, the extremist acts and language of which discredited the early idealism of the New Left.
Went hand in hand with the New Left, expressed by young people in rebellious styles of dress, music, drug use, and communal living. The dress code of these "flower children" included long hair, beards, beads, and jeans.
1969, a gathering of thousands of young people music festival in upper New York State that reflected the zenith of the counterculture
challenged traditional beliefs about sexual conduct in the late 1940s and 1950s by pioneering surveys of sexual practice indicating that premarital sex, marital infidelity, and homosexuality were more common than anyone had suspected.
Medicine and science (birth control and venereal disease prevention) as well as Kinsey's research contributed to the changing attitudes about casual sex in a movement known as _________. Overtly sexual ads, magazines, and movies made sex appear as a consumer product. Premarital sex, contraception, abortion, and homosexuality became practiced more openly.
increased education and employment of women in the 1950s, the civil rights movement, and sexual revolution all contributed to a renewal of the _________ in the 1960s.
Betty Friedan, "The Feminine Mystique"
a book that gave the women's rights movement a new direction by encouraging middle-class women to seek fulfillment in professional careers in addition to filling the roles of wife, mother, and homemaker.
National Organization for Women
Founded in 1966 by Betty Friedan, adopted the activist tactics of other civil rights movements to secure equal treatment of women, especially for job opportunities.
Equal Pay Act (1963)
This act prohibits unequal pay for equal or substantially equal work performed by men and women.
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
Legislation passed by Congress in 1972 which stated that "equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex." It just missed acceptance by the required 38 states, in part because of a growing reaction against feminism by conservatives who feared the movement threatened the traditional roles of women.
a noncombat specialist who trains and equips another nations soldiers, used in the Vietnam War to train the South Vietnamese army and guarded weapons and facilities.
fall of Diem
The US ally in South Vietnam, Ngo Dinh Diem, was overthrown and killed by South Vietnamese generals. He was not popular, and Kennedy was questioning whether the Vietnamese could win the war just before both he and Diem were killed.
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
1964 - Johnson made use of a naval incident in the Gulf of Tonkin off Vietnam's coast to secure congressional authorization for US forces going into combat. Allegedly, North Vietnamese gunboats fired on US warships in the Gulf of Tonkin. The president persuaded the Congress that this aggressive act was sufficient reason for a military response by the US. Congress voted its approval of the __________, which basically gave the president a black check to take "all necessary means" to protect US interests in Vietnam
escalation of troops
Johnson continued a step by step _____________ in Vietnam, using US combat troops for the first time to fight the Vietcong in 1965 (184,000) and by 1967 had 485,000 troops in Vietnam
commander of the US forces in Vietnam, assured the American public that he could see the "light at the end of the tunnel" even though 16,000 Americans had already died in the conflict
misinformation from military and civilian leaders combined with Johnson's reluctance to speak frankly with the American people about the scope and the costs of the war created what the media called a __________, or a lack of popular confidence in the truth of the claims or public statements made by the federal government, large corporations, politicians, etc.
On the occasion of the lunar new year (Tet) 1968, the Vietcong launched an all-out surprise attack on almost every provincial capital and American base in South Vietnam. The US military counterattacked, and inflicted much heavier losses on the Vietcong, and recovered the lost territory. The destruction viewed by millions on TV appeared as a colossal setback for Johnson's Vietnam policy.
hawks and doves
supporters of the war, __1__, believed that the war was an act of Soviet-backed Communist aggression against South Vietnam and that it was a master plan to conquer all of Southeast Asia. The opponents of the war, __2__, viewed the conflict as a civil war fought by Vietnamese nationalists and some Communists who wanted to unite their country by overthrowing a corrupt Saigon government.
1968 - President Johnson went on television and told the American people that he would limit the bombing of North Vietnam and negotiate peace, and that he would not run again for president. Peace talks began, but the war did not end.
1968 Democratic candidate for President who ran to succeed incumbent Lyndon B. Johnson on an anti-war platform.
In 1968, Two months after MLK's assassination, Robert Kennedy was assassinated in the kitchen of the Ambassador Hotel in LA just after he gave his primary election victory speech. The killer, Sirahn Sirahn is still in jail for the crime. This prompted the Secret Service to protect not only the incumbent president, but also presidential candidates.
The democratic nominee for the presidency in the election of 1968. He was LBJ's vice president, and was supportive of his Vietnam policies. This support split the Democratic party, allowing Nixon to win the election for the Republicans.
When the democrats met for their __________, Hubert Humphrey clearly had enough delegates to win the nomination. However, antiwar protestors controlled the streets, resulting violence went out on television as a "police riot," and the democratic party was divided between hawks and doves.
the growing hostility of many whites to federal desegregation, antiwar protests, civil rights advances and race riots
1968 Republican nominee for president, more positive, "hawk" on the Vietnam war, defeated Herbert Humphrey in a very close popular vote but majority electoral vote. Nixon and Wallace's popular vote was 57%, showing how the nation needed time to rest from the upheavals of the 1960s.