APUSH Chapters 9-10
Terms in this set (66)
Society of Cincinnati
An exclusive military order formed by a group of Continental Army officers in 1783, it was denounced for its aristocratic pretensions.
A medieval inheritance law which awarded all of a father's property to the elder son
She teased her husband that "the ladies" were determined "to foment a rebellion" of their own if they were not given political rights.
He and several other angry farmers violently protested against debtor's jail; eventually crushed; aided in the creation of constitution because land owners now wanted to preserve what was theirs from "mobocracy"
1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
A co-author of the Federalist Papers, he was an influential delegate of the Constitutional Convention later to be called the Father of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. By writing the Bill of Rights, he secured the faith of those who were not sure about the Constitution.
the act of constituting a political unity out of a number of separate states or colonies or provinces so that each member retains the management of its internal affairs
Checks and balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power.
ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states
Lawless control of public affairs by the mob or populace.
Consent of the governed
the idea that government derives its authority by the sanction of the people
A philosophy of limited government with elected representatives serving at the will of the people. The government is based on consent of the governed.
According to the compact theory of the Union the states retained all powers not specifically delegated to the central government by the Constitution.
The concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. People express themselves through voting and free participation in government
An alliance of independent states
a state of lawlessness and disorder (usually resulting from a failure of government)
Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house
Articles of Confederation
This document, the nation's first constitution, was adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1781 during the Revolution. The document was limited because states held most of the power, and Congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage.
a group of people named by each state legislature to select the president and vice president
Land Ordinance of 1785
A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.
the agreement by which the number of each state's representatives in Congress would be based on a count of all the free people plus three-fifths of the slaves
Enacted in 1787, it is considered one of the most significant achievements of the Articles of Confederation. It established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the original 13 states
opponents of a strong central government who campaigned against the ratification of the Constitution in favor of a confederation of independant states
this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes
Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution.
Plan proposed by Virginia for representation in both houses should be based on population. Bicameral.
Constitution of the United States
Written at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787 and subsequently ratified by the original thirteen states, The foundation of our country's national government; was drafted in Philadelphia in 1787; it establishes a government with direct authority over all citizens, it defines the powers of the national government, and it establishes protection for the rights of states and of every individual.
Essays promoting ratification of the Constitution, published anonymously by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison in 1787 and 1788.
"Bundle of compromises"
This referred to the fact that the Constitution was trying to please everybody. (Great Compromise; 3/5 compromise; method of electing president; regulation of slave trade)
He was the second president of the United States and a Federalist. He was responsible for passing the Alien and Sedition Acts. Prevented all out war with France after the XYZ Affair. His passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts severely hurt the popularity of the Federalist party and himself
A prominent statesman, Thomas Jefferson became George Washington's first secretary of state. Along with James Madison, Jefferson took up the cause of strict constructionists and the Republican Party, advocating limited federal government. As the nation's third president from 1801 to 1809, Jefferson organized the national government by Thomas Jefferson Republican ideals, doubled the size of the nation, and struggled to maintain American neutrality
Secretary of War under Washington, he was a trusted general of the American Revolution; he was entrusted to protect the nation from enemies.
United States diplomat and jurist who negotiated peace treaties with Britain and served as the first chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1745-1829)
French ambassador in America, went around country trying to recruit Americans to fight for French without consent of American government --> kicked out for allowing French warship into Philadelphia, no longer French ambassador in America
A General, nicknamed "Mad Anthony". Beat Northwest Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers on August 20, 1794. Left British made arms on the fields of battle. After that the Treaty of Greenville in 1795 led to the Indians ceding their claims to a vast tract in the Ohio Country.
the French foreign minister, whom which three American diplomats seek to reach an agreement with, they are stopped by the French X, Y, and Z dipolmats and are asked for a bribe. Causes XYZ affair.
was the first person to be put to trial for violating the acts on charges of criticizing Federalist president John Adams and disagreeing with Adams' decision to go to war against France. He was sentenced to four months in jail and ordered to pay a $1,000 fine and court costs. While in jail, he won election to the Sixth Congress. In the election of 1800 he cast the deciding vote for Jefferson after the election went to the House of Representatives because of an electoral tie.
funding at par
A term which meant that the federal government would pay off its debts at face value with interest
way of interpreting the Constitution that allows the federal government to take only those actions the Constitution specifically says it can take
Economic policy of Alexander Hamilton where the central government would assume the debts of all the states. It would tie the states closer to the federal government.
Powers inferred from the express powers that allow Congress to carry out its functions
a government tax on imports or exports
pertaining to farmers and agriculture
a tax on the manufacturing of an item. Helped Hamilton to achieve his theory on a strong central government, supported by the wealthy manufacturers. This tax mainly targeted poor Western front corn farmers (Whiskey). This was used to demonstrate the power of the Federal Government, and sparked the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794.
claiming that the formation of the nation was through a compact by all of the states individually and that the national government is consequently a creation of the states
The doctrine that a state can declare null and void a federal law that, in the state's opinion, violates the Constitution.
secretaries of the executive departments, the vice president, and other top officials that help the president make decisions and policy
Bank of the United States
This was established by Hamilton and opposed by Jefferson as a way to strength the economy and attract investors which lasted for 20 years and had a cap of $10 million. It also created a currency which did not exist in the early American days. The bank was extremely important in strengthening the economy as it created a stock market which boomed immediately. It also established an ever so important currency which fixed many uprising disputes about money.
Bill of Rights
a statement of fundamental rights and privileges (especially the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution)
The second great democratic revolution, taking place in the 1790s, after the American Revolution had been proven to be a success. The U.S. did nothing to aid either side. The French people overthrew the king and his government, and then instituted a series of unsuccessful democratic governments until Napoleon took over as dictator in 1799.
1794 - It was signed in the hopes of settling the growing conflicts between the U.S. and Britain. It dealt with the Northwest posts and trade on the Mississippi River. It was unpopular with most Americans because it did not punish Britain for the attacks on neutral American ships. It was particularly unpopular with France, because the U.S. also accepted the British restrictions on the rights of neutrals.
Convention of 1800
Agreement which freed America from its alliance with France, forgave French $20 million in damages and resulted in Adams' losing a second term as president
Washington's declaration that the U.S. would not take sides after the French Revolution touched off a war between France and a coalition consisting primarily of England, Austria and Prussia. Washington's Proclamation was technically a violation of the Franco-American Treaty of 1778.
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
makes clear that the rights spelled in Constitution are not the only rights for Americans
supporters of the stronger central govt. who advocated the ratification of the new constitution
The Constitutional amendment stating that "The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people."
1795 - Treaty between the U.S. and Spain which gave the U.S. the right to transport goods on the Mississippi river and to store goods in the Spanish port of New Orleans
Alien and Sedition Acts
Laws passed by congress in 1798 that enabled the government to imprison or deport aliens and to prosecute critics of the government
Battle of Fallen Timbers
Post-revolution war, British instogate Native American attacks, but "Mad" Anthony Wayne defeats them in Ohio Valley and gets the Greenville treaty, which cedes Native American land in Ohio Valley to U.S.
The address was Washington's farewell letter that was written by Hamilton and published in newspapers It warned against permanent alliances and political parties.
Virginia and Kentucky resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
one of nations first political parties, led by Thomas Jefferson and stemming from the anti-federalists, emerged around 1792, gradually became today's Democratic party. They were pro-French, liberal, and mostly made up of the middle class. They favored a weak central govt., and strong states' rights.
Judiciary Act of 1789
In 1789 Congress passed this Act which created the federal-court system. The act managed to quiet popular apprehensions by establishing in each state a federal district court that operated according to local procedures.
Treaty of Greenville
Gave America all of Ohio after General Mad Anthony Wayne battled and defeated the Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. 1795 Allowed Americans to explore the area with peace of mind that the land belonged to America and added size and very fertile land to America.
An insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand.