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49 terms

Language of Medicine Chapter 14 Vocabulary

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Acquired Immunity
Production of antibodies and lymphocytes after exposure to an antigen.
Adenoids
Mass of lymphatic tissue in the nasopharynx.
Antibody
Protein produced by B cell lymphocytes to destroy antigens.
Antigen
Substance that the body recogines as foreign;evokes an immune response. Most antigens are proteins or proteins fragments found on the surface of bacteria, viruses, or organ transplant tissue cells.
Axillary Nodes
Lymph nodes in the armpit (underarm).
B cell (B lymphocyte)
Lymphocyte that originates in the bone marrow and transforms into a plasma cell to secrete antibodies. The B refers to the bursa of Fabricius, an organ in birds in which B cell differentiation and growth were first noted to occur.
Cervical nodes
Lymph nodes in the neck region.
Complement system
Proteins in the blood that help antibodies and T cells kill their target.
Cytokines
Proteins that aid and regulate the immune response. Examples are interferons and interleukins.
Cytotoxic T cell
T lymphocyte that directly kills foreign cells (CD8+ cell or T8 cell)
Dendritic cell
Specialized macrophage that disgests foreign cells and helps B and T cells to mark antigens for destruction.
Helper T cell
Lymphocyte that aids B cells and cytotoxic T cells in recognizing antigens and stimulating antibody production;also called CD4+ cell or T4 cell.
Immunity
Body's ability to resist foreign organisms and toxins. This includes natural immunity and acquired immunity.
Immunoglobulins
Antibodies (gramma globulins) such as IgA, IgE, IgM, and IgD that are secreted by plasma cells in response to the presence of an antigen.
Immunotherapy
Use of immune cells, antibodies, or vaccines to treat or prevent disease.
Inguinal nodes
Lymph nodes in the grion region.
Interferons
Proteins (cytokines) secreted by T cells to aid and regulate the immune response.
Interleukins
Proteins (cytokines) that stimulate the growth of B and T lymphocytes.
Interstitial fluid
Fluid in the spaces between cells. This fluid becomes lymph when it enters lymph capillaries.
Lymph
Thin watery fluid found within lymphatic vessels and collected from tissues throughtout the body. Latin lympha means clear spring water.
Lymph capillaries
Tiniest lymphatic vessels.
Lymphoid organs
Lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus gland.
Lymph node
A collection of stationary solid lyphatic tissue along lymph vessels.
Lyph vessel
Carrier of lymph throughout the body; lymphatic vessels empty lymph into veins in the upper part of the chest.
Macrophage
Large phagocyte found in lymph nodes and other tissue of the body.
Mediastinal nodes
Lymph nodes in the area between the lungs in the thoracic (chest) cavity.
Monoclonal antibody
Antibody produced in a laboratory to attack antigens and to destroy cells. It is useful in immunotherapy.
Natural immunity
Protection that an individual inherits to fight infection.
Plasma cell
Lymphocyte that produces and secretes antibodies. It originates from B lymphocytes.
Right lymphatic duct
Large lymphatic vessel in the chest that receives lymph from the upper right part of the body.
Spleen
Organ near the stomach that produces, stores, and elimates blood cells.
Suppressor T cell
Lymphocyte that inhibits the activity of B and T lymphocytes. Also called a Teg (regulatory T cell).
T cell (T lymphocyte)
Lymphocyte that originates in the bone marrow but matures in the thymus gland; it acts directly on antigens to destroy them or produce chemicals (cytokines) such as interferons and interleukins that are toxic to antigens.
Tolerance
The ability of T lymphocytes to recognize and accept the body's own antigens as self or friendly. Once tolerance is established, the immune system will not react against the body.
Thoracic duct
Large lymphatic vessels in the chest that receives lymph from below the diaphragm and from the left side of the body above the diaphragm; it empties the lymph into veins in the upper chest.
Thymus gland
Organ in the mediastinum that conditions T lymphocytes to react to foreign cells and aids in the immune response.
Tonsils
Mass of lymphatic tissue in the back of the oropharynx.
Toxin
Poison; a protein produced by certain bacteria, animals, or plants.
Vaccination
Exposure of an individual to a foreign protein (antigen) that provokes an immune response. The response will destroy any cell that processes the antigen on its surface and will protect against infection. The term comes from the Latin vacca, cow- the first inoculations were given with organisms that caused the disease cowpox to produced immunity to smallpox.
Vaccine
Weakened or killed microorganisms, toxins, or other proteins given to induced immunity to infection or disease.
immun/o protection
autoimmune disease Examples are rheumatoid arthritis and lupus erythematosus.
lymph/o lymph
lymphopoiesis lymphedema
Interstitial fluid collects within the spaces between cells as a result of obstruction of lymphatic vessels and nodes.
lymphaden/o lymph node (gland)
lymphadenopathy
lymphadenitis
splen/o spleen
splenomegaly
Note that the combing form for spleen contains only one e.
splenectomy
asplenia-the condition may be congenital or result from surgical removal.
hypersplenism-a syndrome marked by splenomegaly and often associated with blood cell destruction, anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia.
thym/o thymus gland
thymoma
thymectomy
tox/o poison
toxic
PREFIXES
...
ana- again, anew
anaphylaxis
The suffix-phylaxis means protection. This is an exaggerated or unusual hypersensitivity to previously encountered foreign proteins or other antigens. Vasodilation and a decrease in blood pressure can be life-threatening.
inter between
interstitial fluid
The suffix-stitial means pertaining to standin or positioned.