Biology- 1st Semester Exam Review
Terms in this set (80)
well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations
possible explanation for a set of observations or possible answer to a scientific question
evidence; information gathered from observations
2 cells from different parents unite to produce the first cell of a new organism
single parent reproduces by itself
smallest unit that is considered fully alive
What is the basic unit of max in the SI (International system) of units?
What are the 8 characteristics of all living things?
-made of cells
-based on universal genetic code
-grow and develop
-obtain and use materials and energy
-respond to their environment
-maintain stable internal environment
-change over time
smallest fragment of matter
Neutrons (location and charge)
center of atom (help form nucleus); no charge
Electrons (location and charge)
In the electron cloud negative charge
Protons (location and charge)
center of atom (form nucleus); positive charge
any compound that forms H+ ions in a solution
compound that produces hydroxide ions in a solution
substance that is dissolved in a solution
made by ions being dispersed
substance in which the solute dissolves
formed when 1 or more electrons are transferred from 1 atom to another
forms when electrons are shared between atoms
attraction between molecules of different substances
attraction between molecules of the same substance
tells the mass of an element
same elements that differ in the number of neutrons they contain
make their own food (1st trophic level)
rely on other organisms for food and energy (2nd and 3rd trophic levels)
uses energy from the environment to make food
relies on other organisms for food and energy
breaks down organic matter
eat plant and animal remains and other dead matter
live in remote places; use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates
total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level
eats animals (meat)
eats plants and animals
links all of an ecosystem's food chains together
series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
1 step in a food chain or web
conversion of nitrogen gas into ammonia (by bacteria)
What form is carbon found in the atmosphere?
gas- carbon dioxide
The grouping of organisms in the biosphere from simplest to most complex.
species, populations, communities, ecosystem, biome, biosphere
succession that occurs on surfaces where no soil exists
community interactions restore the ecosystem
all living things with which an organism might interact
both species benefit from the relationship
1 benefits, the other isn't helped or harmed
1 species lives on/harms another
Which biomes have the least amount of precipitation?
Desert and Tundra
What factors can influence continual change in an ecosystem?
Abiotic factors- temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind, nutrient availability, soil type, sunlight
What is water chemistry?
amount of dissolved chemicals on which life depends
What is the ocean zone where no light penetrates called?
Aphotic zone (permanently dark)
What is the bottom of the ocean called?
What is the photic zone?
well- lit upper layer of the ocean
Where is the oceanic zone?
largest marine zone, home to most photosynthetic activity (edge of continental shelf and outward)
What is the difference between climate and weather?
Weather- day-to-day atmospheric condition in a specific place
Climate- average year-by-year conditions in a particular region
movement of individuals into an area
movement of individuals out of an area
largest number of individuals of a population that a given environment can support
scientific study of human populations
a factor that causes population growth to decrease
resources that can regenerate if they are alive or can be replenished by biogeochemical cycles if they are nonliving (ex.tree)
resource that can't be replenished by natural processes
mixture of chemicals that occurs as a gray-brown haze in the atmosphere
introduced species that reproduce rapidly because their new habitat lacks the predators that would control their population
What is the goal of conservation biology?
protecting ecosystems/species to ensure preservation of natural habitats and interactions between species
What is sustainable development?
way of using natural resources without depleting them and providing for human needs without causing long-term environmental harm
testing a single variable
What does a controlled experiment allow a scientist to isolate and test?
isolate a single variable
Methods of inquiry used in an experiment
ask a question, research, form hypothesis, test (experiment), analyze/ draw conclusion, communicate results
what goes into a chemical reaction
rate at which living things break down food
Number of protons in an element
Chemical reaction (reactant and product)
process that involves rearranging the molecular or ionic structure of a substance (changing a substance's chemical identity)
What is a molecule of water made of?
Made of 2 hydrogen and 1 oxygen atom
Why does ice float in water?
ice has less density and molecules are spaced apart
What is an organic compound?
Any member of a large class of gas, liquid or solid chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon
studies life and biology
1st, 2nd and 3rd level consumers
Producers (1st level) and consumers (2nd and 3rd levels)
Where are the polar, temperate, and tropical zones located?
Tropical- located at the equator; between 23.5 N and 23.5 S
Temperate- located between polar and tropical, constantly being affected by the sun
Polar- located at north and south poles
process of eroding by wind, water or other natural agents
Process of changing nitrogen in the atmosphere into ammonia