Terms in this set (84)
hands should be at the 8 o'clock and 4 o'clock positions. Hold the wheel with your fingers and thumbs. Avoid gripping it with your palms.
what are Speed Limits?
A speed limit is the maximum legal speed you can travel on a road under ideal conditions. You may drive slower than the posted speed, but it is illegal to drive any faster. By law, you must drive slower if conditions such as road construction or bad weather make the posted speed unsafe. It is illegal to use a radar detector in Virginia.
whats the speed limit for Interstate highways in certain rural areas?
whats the speed limit for Non-rural interstate highways, public roads not part of the interstate system?
whats the speed limit for Rural rustic roads?
whats the speed limit for School, business and residential zones? (You are required only when indicated by a sign or signal. Otherwise, maintain the posted speed.)
You must always stop your vehicle when...
--at all stop signs, red traffic lights and flashing red signals
--when entering a street or crossing over a sidewalk from a driveway, alley, building or parking lot
--at railroad crossings with flashing signals
--when signaled by flaggers directing traffic
--for pedestrians attempting to cross the street at a
--at the direction of a police officer. If you don't obey a
law enforcement officer's signal to stop and the officer
pursues you and is killed as a direct result of the pursuit, will be guilty of a Class 4 felony.
--at the scene of a crash in which you are involved
--When approaching a stop sign and the car in front of you proceeds, stop at the sign and proceed when the way is clear.
Stopping Distance is determined by...
-- they can be affected by weather, visibility, and your mental and physical condition.
The time it takes you to recognize a hazard.
The distance your vehicle travels between the time you recognize a problem and the time you apply the brakes.
The distance your car travels after you apply the brakes. Affected by how fast your vehicle is traveling, the condition of your brakes and tires, and the pavement condition.
Do you pump Antilock Brakes?
never pump antilock brakes
Examples of yielding the right-of-way...
--When two vehicles from different directions arrive at an intersection at different times, the vehicle that arrives first goes first.
--When two vehicles from different directions arrive at
the same time at an intersection with no signs or signals, the driver on the left must allow the driver on the right to go first.
--If the traffic lights at an intersection are not working,
all vehicles coming to the intersection must stop. The
driver on the left must yield to the driver on the right.
--Drivers entering an interstate from an entrance ramp
must yield the right-of-way to traffic already on the
--Drivers entering any intersection or traffic circle must
yield to traffic already in it.
--When entering a roadway from a private road or driveway, you must stop and yield to all traffic and pedestrians.
--You must yield for pedestrians who are crossing a street within a clearly marked crosswalk or at an unmarked intersection. Remember that turns on red are especially hazardous to pedestrians. Avoid conflict with
pedestrians and permit them to cross the street safely.
--You must yield to funeral processions. Do not cut
through, join or interfere with a funeral procession.
Unless led by a police escort, the lead vehicle in a funeral procession must obey all traffic signs and signals. Other drivers in the procession may follow carefully without stopping and may use hazard lights (flashers) to indicate they are in the procession.
--You must yield to all military convoys. Never cut through or join a military convoy
what do you do if you see Vehicles with Flashing Lights
what do you do if you see stopped vehicles?
*- When approaching a stopped vehicle with flashing
lights on a four lane highway, you must change to a lane not next to the emergency vehicle, if you can change lanes safely. If you are unable to safely change lanes, reduce your speed and proceed with caution. Violations can result in court suspension of your driver's license and demerit points on your driving record.
*-You may not park within 500 feet of where fire trucks or equipment are stopped answering an alarm.
how far do you have to be from an emergency vehicle when its lights are flashing?
Never follow an emergency vehicle closer than 500 feet
when its lights are flashing.
When police, fire and rescue vehicles or ambulances approach you from behind your vehicle using a siren what do you do?
When police, fire and rescue vehicles or ambulances
approach you from behind your vehicle using a siren,
flashing lights or both, you must immediately yield the
right-of-way. Safely pull over to the right edge of the
road and stop until the emergency vehicle has passed.
what do you do when emergency vehicles approach you in the opposite lane on an undivided highway?
you must pull over to the edge of the road and stop until the emergency vehicle passes.
terms for intersections with a circular
island in the center
Roundabouts, rotaries, circular intersections and traffic circles
how many lanes may roundabouts have?
one or more lanes
going in to roundabouts
Entering traffic must yield the right-of-way to traffic already in the circle. Each road approaching the roundabout is marked with a yield sign and may also have yield line markings on the pavement. However, rotaries and other circles may have stop signs. Drivers must pay attention and obey the signs. When approaching a roundabout, slow down. Use your turn
signals to indicate where you want to go. If you plan to turn right, stay to the right as you enter the roundabout. If you plan to go straight, you may stay in either lane (if it is a dual lane circular intersection). If you plan to turn left, stay to the left as you enter the roundabout.
Before changing lanes
check your side and rearview mirrors for traffic approaching you from behind. Then, use your turn signal to let other drivers know you plan to change lanes. Check for other drivers who also may be moving into the same lane. Just before you begin moving into the other lane, quickly glance over your shoulder and check for any vehicles that may be in your blind spot.
when do you use turn signals?
entering or exiting a highway
When passing another vehicle...
--check the traffic ahead of you, behind you and in your
blind spot before you attempt to pass. Signal and then
accelerate to pass. Return to the right lane as soon as you can see the front of the passed vehicle in your rearview mirror.
--it is against the law to exceed the speed limit as you pass.
--complete the pass before you reach a No Passing zone. If you're still in the left lane when you reach the zone, you're breaking the law.
-- you may pass on the right if the vehicle you are passing has signaled and is making a left turn. Be cautious because the vehicle you are passing may be blocking your view or blocking the view of other drivers. You may not pass on the right if you must drive off the pavement or main portion of the roadway to get around the other vehicle.
-- when approaching or passing a person riding a bicycle, moped, or power-assisted bicycle or other device, reduce speed and pass at least two feet to the left.
when can you not pass vehicles
--on hills, curves, at intersections or railroad crossings,
except on roads with two or more lanes of traffic moving in the same direction
--off the pavement or shoulder of the road
--when a school bus is stopped to load or unload passengers on a public road (unless a physical barrier or unpaved median separates traffic going in either direction) or on a private road
-- when a solid line marks the left side of your lane
occurs when the driver turns the steering wheel more sharply than expected, causing the rear wheels of the vehicle to slide toward the outside of the turn. This may
result in the loss of vehicle control.
Most over-correction crashes are...
single vehicle crashes and
are often preventable. A driver should remain alert at all
times. Reduce speed and use extra caution while driving on
curved roads. If you veer off the road, curved or straight, do
not panic. Gradually reduce your speed, look in the direction
you want to go, slowly steer back onto the roadway
To make a right turn
be in the lane closest to the curb. Signal your intent to turn by using the proper turn signal. You should signal at least three or four seconds, 100 feet, ahead of the turn. Look to your left to check the intersection for pedestrians and traffic coming from the other direction. Then brake smoothly before and during the turn. If
there is a traffic light or a stop sign at the intersection, come to a complete stop before you make the turn. Turn into the lane closest to the curb unless pavement markings lead you otherwise, and then change lanes if needed.
To make a left turn
be in the furthest left lane possible, turning into the leftmost lane on the intersecting road, unless pavement markings lead you otherwise; or, unless multiple left turn lanes are provided. If multiple left turn lanes are provided, you should choose the lane that will best serve your need once you enter the intersecting road.
Signal your intent to turn by using the proper turn signal. You should signal at least three to four seconds, 100 feet, ahead of the turn. Look in all directions, checking the intersection for pedestrians and traffic coming from the opposite direction. Keep your front wheels pointed straight ahead until you are actually going to make the left turn. This prevents you from
being pushed into oncoming traffic if another vehicle crashes into you from behind. When the way is clear, make the left turn, yield to any vehicles (including bicycles and pedestrians) approaching from the opposite direction.
When two vehicles are approaching each other and signaling to turn left what should they do?
both vehicles should turn in front of each other so that the passenger sides of the vehicles are beside each other.
where can you make U-Turns?
--not legal everywhere
--Before you make a U-turn, check for No U-Turn or No Left Turn signs
--In business districts, cities and towns,
U-turns are allowed only at intersections. Never
make a U-turn on a highway.
When making a U-turn
turn on your left-turn signal, stop, and yield for approaching traffic. When the way is clear, proceed into the outside or right hand lane traveling in the opposite direction.
do you have to use turn signal?
required by law
when do you use turn signal?
--When you plan to change lanes, turn, or enter or exit a
--signal three or four seconds, 100 feet,
ahead of your turn.
Left hand and arm pointing straight out
Left hand and arm pointing upward
Slow or Stop
Left hand and arm pointing downward
when driving Under 35 MPH how many sec. should you be away from the car in front of you.
when driving 36-45 MPH how many sec. should you be away from the car in front of you.
when driving 46-70 MPH how many sec. should you be away from the car in front of you.
you should Increase the distance between your car and the car in front of you when...
--your behind a large vehicle that blocks your vision
--in bad weather or heavy traffic
--when exiting an expressway
--behind a motorcycle
--when being tailgated
when the driver behind you is following too
. If you find yourself in this situation, do not brake
suddenly. If possible, move over to another lane, or gently
tap your brakes to flash your brake lights and slow down. This
should encourage the tailgater to pass you or slow down.
how frequently should u check your rearview mirror
every 10 sec.
look left, right, left when...
intersections, crosswalks, shopping centers, construction areas
danger areas that cannot be seen in the
mirrors on either or both sides of the vehicle.
common pedestrians most often involved in crashes
children, the elderly and adults under the influence of alcohol or other drugs
--same right-of-way as motor vehicles,also expected to obey the same traffic rules and regulations as vehicle drivers
-- same rules as bike
--It is against the law to operate a moped faster than 35 MPH or on an interstate highway
--must be at least age 16 and obey all rules of the road. They must carry some form of identification that includes name, address and date of birth. As a driver, treat moped riders with the same care given to any other vehicle driver.
--do not need a driver's license
--may not operate a moped if you have been declared a habitual offender and your license is suspended or revoked for driving while intoxicated.
--Always check for motorcycles before you pull out, change lanes, turn, back up or proceed through an intersection.
-- add a second when fallowing
--Yield to motorcycles
( like train)
Trucks, tractor-trailers, buses and RVs have big No-Zones on both sides that are dangerous because these vehicles must make wide turns. These No-Zones or blind spots are much larger than your car's blind spots. If you can't see the driver's face in his side view mirror, then he can't see you.
Trucks, tractor-trailers, buses and RVs have huge No-Zones directly behind them. The driver can't see your car behind his vehicle and you can't see what's happening in traffic ahead of his vehicle. If the truck, bus or RV brakes or stops suddenly, you have no place to go and could crash into the vehicle's rear-end. Always maintain a safe following distance.
You could get rear-ended by a truck, bus or RV if you cut in front too soon after passing the vehicle or if you cut in front and then suddenly slow down. The truck, bus and RV drivers would be forced to slam on their brakes. These vehicles need nearly twice the time and room to stop as cars. A truck and its trailer may be as long as 65 feet and it may take you more than half a mile of clear road to pass. When passing, look for the entire front of the truck in your rearview mirror before pulling in front. And then, maintain your speed.
Trucks, buses and RVs sometimes need to swing wide to the left or right to safely make a turn. They can't see the cars directly behind or beside them. In fact, their blind spots may stretch up to 20 feet in front of the cab and approximately 200 feet behind the vehicle. Never try to squeeze between a truck, bus or RV and the curb or another vehicle.
Light to Medium Trailers
These trailers are attached to mid-sized cars and trucks with safety chains and a trailer hitch. Large side mirrors are generally needed to increase visibility. Towing a trailer places additional stress on the vehicle; it takes
the vehicle twice as long to pass, stop, accelerate and turn. Remember the No-Zones described under Trucks, Tractor-Trailers and RVs.
Before driving a vehicle with a light to medium trailer attached, perform a safety inspection before each trip. Ensure:
--the pin securing the ball mount to the receiver is intact
--the hitch coupler is secured
--safety chains are properly attached
--the electrical plug is properly installed
--brake lights, turn signals, and license plate lights are functioning properly.
driving a vehicle with a light to medium trailer
--if your trailer starts to sway, steer toward your target
--when backing up, place your hand on the bottom of the
steering wheel. If you cannot see where you are backing
up, have someone outside to help guide you. To back the trailer to the left, use your left hand to move the wheel left. To back the trailer to the right, use your right hand to move the wheel to the right
The most common mistake that drivers make when backing up is failing to look both ways behind them. Mirrors do not give you a full view. To see as much as possible, turn your body and head to the right and look out through the rear window. Back up slowly and check for pedestrians and approaching traffic by glancing quickly to either side.
parking on a public road
move as far from traffic as possible
parking on a shoulder
pull over as far on the shoulder as possible
parking next to a curb
pull close to it. You may not park more than one foot from the curb
parking on a two-way street
park on the right side of the road
parking on a one-way road
park on either side
Parking on a hill with a curb
Turn the front wheels of your vehicle to prevent it from rolling into the street.
Parking on a hill without a curb
Turn the front wheels so that if the vehicle rolls, the rear of the vehicle will roll away from traffic.
- beside another parked vehicle (double parking)
- on crosswalks or sidewalks
- in front of driveways
- within areas where parking is prohibited by curbs painted yellow or No Parking signs
- in a parking space reserved for disabled persons
- on the hard surface of a road when no curb is present
- within 15 feet of a fire hydrant
- within 20 feet of an intersection
- within 15 feet of the entrance to a fire, ambulance or
rescue squad station
- within 500 feet of where fire trucks or equipment are
stopped answering an alarm
- within 50 feet of a railroad crossing
- in such a way that you block or create a hazard for
other vehicles in a designated traffic lane
use Lights when...
inclement weather such as rain, fog, snow or sleet when
visibility is reduced to 500 feet. You must use your headlights whenever you use your windshield wipers as a result of bad weather.
Driving becomes hazardous when...
visibility is reduced or when the road surface is covered with rain, snow or ice. Reducing your speed should be your first response to decreased visibility and dangerous road conditions. Increase your space cushion by doubling your normal following distance from three seconds to six seconds (refer to the Maintaining a Space Cushion section for more information). Turn on your headlights.
At sunset, as soon as light begins to fade, turn on your
headlights to make your vehicle more visible to others. You
must use headlights from sunset to sunrise.
when Use low-beams
when driving in cities and towns, except
on streets where there is no lighting. Switch to low-beams
whenever you meet oncoming traffic to avoid blinding the
other driver. When following, use low-beams whenever you
are within 200 feet of the vehicle ahead.
Use high-beam when...
headlights on highways, unless another vehicle is within 500 feet coming toward you. If the high-beams of an oncoming car are on, avoid looking directly at the bright lights. Glance toward the side of the road, then look quickly ahead to determine the other vehicle's position. Keep doing this until you have passed the other vehicle. Even if the other driver does not dim his headlights, do not turn on your high-beam headlights.
driving in fog
reflects light and can reflect your own headlights back into your eyes. Use low-beam headlights in heavy fog and look for road edge markings to guide you. Even light fog reduces visibility and your ability to judge distances, so slow down.
driving in rain
Driving in heavy rain can be as hazardous as driving in fog,
especially if the wind is blowing. Other vehicles to the rear
and in blind spot areas are especially difficult to see when it's raining.Use your low-beam headlights to see and be seen. In light rain or drizzle, turn on your wind shield wipers to improve visibility; using wipers for sprinkles may smear the windshield and make it harder to see, so make sure you have windshield washer fluid. When rain begins,during the first half-hour, roads are more likely to be slippery due to oil on the road surface mixing with water.
driving in snow
Remove snow and ice from your entire car, including the roof, hood and rear of the vehicle, before you start driving. Snow and ice left on the car can fly off when the vehicle is moving and create a hazard for other motorists. Be sure to clear all of your windows, mirrors and front and rear lights of snow or ice so you can see and communicate with other drivers.Equip your car with all-weather snow tires or chains to help prevent skidding and reduce stopping distance.
Driving on packed snow is similar to driving on ice. When you brake, apply the brakes gently. Slow down before stopping or turning.When driving on slippery surfaces and you need to stop, apply brakes gently. You have the most traction and control when the front tires are rolling. Therefore, your vehicle will respond more effectively to steering while moving more slowly than hard braking. Watch for ice on bridges and in shady areas. Bridges freeze before other road surfaces.
the intent to harass, intimidate, injure or obstruct another
person while committing one or more traffic offenses such
as failing to stop or yield the right-of-way, avoiding a traffic control device or failing to give way to an overtaking vehicle.
changing the radio or CD, talking to passengers, observing
outside surroundings, eating, using a cell phone and more.
When on the road, drivers should not use cell phones,
computers or other distracting devices except to report a
crash or emergency. Before engaging in distracting behavior, pull over and stop the vehicle in a safe location.
Virginia law prohibits drivers under age 18 from using cell
phones or any other wireless communication device while
driving except in a driver emergency and the vehicle is
lawfully parked or stopped. Text messaging or reading of
text messages while driving is illegal for all drivers. Causes 20 percent of all traffic crashes in Virginia.
Constant yawning, head nodding, heavy eyelids, blurred
vision and weaving while driving are some of the warning
signs that you may be on the verge of falling asleep at the
wheel. Your reaction time is slower, awareness is decreased, and judgment is impaired. Often the actions
of tired drivers are confused with drivers who had been
drinking. The consequences can be just as fatal.
Drinking and driving over age 21
if blood alcohol content (BAC) is .08 percent or higher you are considered DUI
If Drinking and driving under age 21
convicted of illegal consumption of alcohol if your BAC is at least .02 but less than .08. If your BAC is .08 or higher you could be convicted of a DUI. If your driving is impaired because you are under the influence of any drug, you may face the same penalties as driving under the influence of alcohol.
all Drunk drivers
- between the hours of 10 PM and 2 AM three out of every ten drivers are drunk
- Just one alcoholic drink can affect your driving ability
- particularly effects vision, judgment, and coordination.
- alcohol affects your judgment and driving ability, your chances of being in a crash are seven times greater if you drive after drinking than if you drive sober.
- Twelve ounces of beer is the same as a shot of liquor or a five-ounce glass of wine.
- Combining alcohol with other drugs usually multiplies the effects
If involved in a traffic crash
2) give any help (dont move anyone)
3) report the crash
4) exchange information
5) notify your insurance company
report the crash to the police within 24 hours.
stopped by a police officer
- Remain calm.
- Pull off to the right side of the roadway. Position your
vehicle as far away from traffic as possible.
- Turn on your flashers.
- Turn off your engine, radio and any other device that
could block communication with the officer.
- Roll down your window so that you can communicate
with the officer.
- Keep your safety belt fastened and ask your passengers
to keep their belts fastened.
- Stay in your vehicle. Do not get out unless the officer
asks you to.
- Keep your hands in plain view, preferably on the
steering wheel. Ask your passengers to keep their hands
in plain view also.
- Do not make any movement that will make the officer
think you are hiding or reaching for something.
- Carry proper identification: a valid driver's license, proof
of vehicle registration and proof of insurance. If the
officer asks for these documents, tell him where they
are and reach for them slowly, keeping one hand on the
- If the officer is driving an unmarked car or is not in
uniform, ask to see his or her identification.
- Answer the officer's questions fully and clearly. If you
don't understand something, politely ask the officer
questions to clarify.
- If the officer issues you a citation, do not argue with the
officer about the citation. You will have your chance to
make your case when you go to court.
- You will be asked to sign the citation. This is not an
admission of guilt. Refusal to sign the citation may result
in your arrest. Or, you may be required to go to the